friendly playfighting, emerges in the preschool years and expands in middle childhood
Piaget's concrete operational stage
children's thought becomes far more logical, flexible and organized than in early childhood.
A perspective that examines separate aspects of thinking.
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
neurological difficulty applied to children who have great difficulty paying attention and learning.
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences
defines eight independent intelligences in terms of distinct sets of processing operations.
Erikson's industry versus inferiority
a psychosocial conflict of the combination of adult expectations and children's drive toward mastery
psychologocial traits and social comparisons appear and a hierarchically organized self-esteem emerges
judgement of one's own appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to those of others.
person you want to be
Person you actually are
Children's four broad categories of social acceptance
a. Popular children
b. Rejected children
c. Controversial children
d. Neglected children
receive many votes
actively disliked, highest risk for poor school performance and antisocial behavior
Receive many votes, both positive and negative
seldom chosen, either positively or negatively
combine academic and social competence; they are kind and considerate, communicating with peers in sensitive, friendly and cooperative ways.
may be "tough" boys who are athletically skilled but are poor students who cause trouble and defy adult authority.
School-age children who are high in academic self-esteem:
1) credit theri success to ability
2) persistent approach to learning
attribute failure to ability but, when succeed, conclude external factors such as luck
encourages learned-helpless children to believe that they can overcome failure by exerting mor effort.
competitiong among siblings
Delayed sleep phase syndrome
major sleep episode is delayed by 2 or more hours of the desired bedtime
An eating disturbance in which individuals starve themselves because of a compulsive fear of getting fat
Piaget's formal operational stage
Young people develop the capacity of scientific thinking, arriving at a more general logical rules through internal reflection
adolescent's belief that they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern.
adolescents' belief that they are special and unique, so that others cannot possibly understand their thoughts and feelings.
A variety of specific mechanisims for cognitive change:
6) Cognitive self-regulation
7) Speed of thinking and processing capacity
Identity versus role confusion
constructs a solid self-definition based on self-chosen values and goals
Continued the research of Piaget, identified 6 distinct stages of moral development
a sense of oneself as a separate individual.
influenced by a diverse combo of biological and environmental factors
increases over the lifespan from childhood to old age but jumps sharply at adolescence
transitional phase of development to adulthood which allows for a further development before taking on adult roles
Worn-out body parts usually repair or replace themselves, and no relationship exists between physical work and early death.
Programmed effects of specific genes
"aging genes" control certain biological changes, such as menopause, gray hair and deterioration ob body cells
Cumulative effects of random events
gradual damage to DNA in body cells through spontaneous or externally caused mutations that accumulate, making cell repair and replacement less efficient pr producing abnormal cancerous cells.
Probably cause of age-related DNA and cellular abnormalities. Naturally occurring, highly reactive chemicals that form in the presence of oxygen or may be triggered by the presence of radiation and certain pollutants and drugs.
reflection on one's own thinking process
Thinking with both reason and intuition
Develops in adulthood as individuals master specific complex domains.
In early to middle childhood, children fantasize about career options; their preferences guided largely by familiarity, glamor and excitement, bear little relation to the decisions they will eventually make
Between ages 11-16 adolescents think about careers in more complex ways including interests, vocations, requirements education, etc.
By the late teens and early twenties, young people start narrowing options.
Influenced by personality, family, teachers, gender as young adults explore possibilities and eventually settle on an occupation.
Intimacy versus isolation
Erikson's psychological conflict of early childhood which is reflected in the young person's thoughts and feelings about making a permanent commitment of an intimate partner
caring for the next generation and helping to improve society