BIO 2020 A+P Final Exam

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BIO 2020 A+P Final Exam
2013-06-10 04:04:48
BIO 2020 final

Mastering A+P Bio 2020 Final Exam
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  1. Which of the following is found in cartilage, but absent in epithelial tissue?
  2. The elastic cartilage is different from hyaline, because it has ____?
    more abundant elastic fibers
  3. The dividing cell that secretes copious amount of collagen in connective tissue proper is known as the _______.
  4. The simple columnar epithelium is found mostly in the ______, and its cells have _____ in their apical surface which increase absorption?
    • Digestive tract
    • microvilli
  5. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium is composed of ___, and has motile _____ that propel mucus and anything trapped init away from the lungs.
    • Single layer of cells
    • Cilia
  6. These membranes secrete fluids and line all body cavities that open to the outside of the body?
  7. This epithelium is composed of a single layer of fattened cells and is very efficient in diffusion of gases or small molecules?
    Simple Squamous
  8. Ground substance found in connective tissue is composed of ___.
    • Proteoglycans
    • Cell adhesion molecules
  9. Which of the following is TRUE of most connective tissue?
    • They manufacture large amounts of extracellular matrix
    • they are avascular
  10. The ___ connective tissue with its microscopic appearance of random arrangement of fivers and its seemingly empty space, which is mostly _____ is considered to be the universal packaging material between other tissues.
    • Loose areolar
    • interstitial fluid
  11. Some of our ligaments and the reticular layer of skin is made up of this type of connective tissue.
    Connective tissue proper: dense irregular
  12. A many-layered epithelium with flat basal cells and apical cuboidal cells would be classified as ________.
    stratified cuboidal
  13. Which of the following is true about the mode of secretion of holocrine glands? (more than one maybe true)
    Holocrine cells are destroyed, then replaced, after secretion.
  14. What are the three main components of cartilage?
    ground substance, fibers, and chondroblasts
  15. Select the correct name/s regarding the mature cells of connective tissue. (more than one might be true)
    • chondrocytes
    • fibrocytes
  16. Select the correct statement regarding epithelia.
    Stratified epithelia are present where protection from abrasion is important.
  17. Select the correct statement regarding brown adipose tissue.
    This tissue is mainly used for generating heat.
  18. What is the most important role of the arrector pili muscles in humans?
    Force sebum out of the hair follicle to the skin surface
  19. The stratum __________ consists of 4-6 cell layers and its cells are flat and secretes glycolipids to prevent water evaporation?
  20. Which of the following is an epidermis cell specialized for alarming the immune system?
    Dendritic cells
  21. Which statement is correct about skin?
    cooling the body by increasing the action of sweat glands during high-temperature conditions
  22. Which of the following cells and their functions are correctly matched?
    Dendritic cells — activate the immune system
  23. The epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in the health, well-being, and functioning of the skin. Which of the following layers is responsible for cell division and replacement?
    stratum basale
  24. Melanocytes are found in greatest number in which stratum?
  25. The composition of the secretions of the sweat gland is ________.
    99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C
  26. The _____________ in the dermis is the thicker layer and is composed mostly of __________ connective tissue, which is responsible for dermis tensile strength .
    reticular layer/dense irregular
  27. Select the correct statement/s about the melanocytes. (more than one answer maybe true)
    • accumulate the melanin granules and pass it to keratinocytes
    • are found mostly in the stratum basale
  28. Which brain region contains the body's "biological clock", and the body's "thermostat"?
  29. The brain stem consists of the ________.
    midbrain, medulla, and pons
  30. What cells line the ventricles of the brain?
    ependymal cells
  31. The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the ________.
  32. Which of the following are functional areas of the cerebral cortex?
    • motor areas
    • sensory areas
    • associate areas
  33. The brain structure ________ contains the _________ that help regulate sleep-wake cycles.
    epithalamus/pineal gland
  34. Which of the following generalizations does not describe the cerebral cortex?
    The hemispheres are exactly equal in function.
  35. The cerebral cortex consists of __________.
    gray matter only
  36. Gray matter is composed of ___________ .
    • neuron bodies
    • unmyelinated axons
    • dendrites
  37. The leathery _________ composed mostly of dense fibrous connective tissue sorrounds the brain and spinal cord and protects the brain from excessive movement.
    dura matter
  38. Cell bodies of the somatic motor neurons are located in ________.
    the ventral horn of the spinal cord
  39. The white matter of the spinal cord contains ________.
    myelinated and unmyelinated axons
  40. Which of the following is a role of the basal nuclei?
    controlling starting and stopping movements
  41. Which of the following statements is or are most correct statements?
    Damage to the premotor cortex results in loss of motor skills programmed in that area but movement is still possible.
  42. Patients with brain damage to _______ area is associated with impaired language comprehension , though these patients are able to speak smoothely.
  43. Damage to ____________ can severly impact accurate aim and timing of a movement, such as in a golf player?
  44. The brain structure composed of loosely clustered neurons found within brainstem that keeps you alert during lectures and this exam, is known as__________.
    reticular formation
  45. Third-order neurons of ascending pathways terminate in the ________.
    somatosensory cortex
  46. Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are ________.
    afferent nerves
  47. All processing at the circuit level going up to the perceptual level must synapse in the ________.
  48. If the ventral root of a spinal nerve were cut, what would be the result in the tissue or region that nerve supplies?
    a complete loss of voluntary movement
  49. What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye?
  50. Conscious perception of vision probably reflects activity in the ________.
    occipital lobe of the cortex
  51. Simple cuboidal epithelia are usually found in areas where secretion and absorption occur.
  52. The role of brown fat is to store nutrients; whereas, the role of white fat is to warm the body .
  53. Tendons and ligaments are composed mainly of dense irregular connective tissue.
  54. Epithelial tissues always exhibit polarity; that is, they have a free surface and a basal surface.
  55. The three basic regions of the cerebrum are cerebral cortex, white matter, and the basal nuclei.
  56. Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord.
  57. The limbic system acts as our emotional, or affective, brain.
  58. Commissural fibers connect the two cerebral hemispheres.
  59. Sorting of sensory information and relaying it to the appropriate cerebral sensory area occurs in the hypothalamus.
  60. The adult spinal cord ends between L1 and L2.
  61. Which of the following is an example of a hormonal stimulus triggering an endocrine gland to manufacture and release other hormones?
    ACTH activates the adrenal cortex to release hormones
  62. Norepinephrine-releasing fibers are called cholinergic fibers.
  63. Which of the following adrenergic receptors plays a major role in constriction of blood vessels in skin when we are very frightened and become pale?
    Alpha 1
  64. Which of the following statements is true?
    Sympathetic origin is thoracolumbar; parasympathetic is craniosacral.

    Sympathetic ganglia are within a few centimeters of the CNS; parasympathetic ganglia are close to visceral organs served.

    Sympathetic division has short preganglionic and long postganglionic fibers; parasympathetic has long preganglionic and short postganglionic fibers.
  65. Ejaculation of semen ________.
    is primarily under sympathetic control
  66. The only tissue in the body that can be transplanted from one person to another with little or no rejection.
  67. Controls lens shape
    Cilliary Body
  68. Acts as a reflexively activated diaphragm to vary pupil size.
  69. Fluid blockages cause glaucoma.
    Aqueous Body
  70. Holds the retina firmly against the pigmented layer.
    Vitreous Body
  71. The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called ________, whereas the cell that use testosterone to manage the sperm production are known as, ____________.
    • interstitial cells 
    • sustentocytes
  72. ACTH ________.
    secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic hormone CRH
  73. Testosterone production 
    Epinephrine production 
    Aldosterone production 
    Parathyroid hormone production
    • Hormonal stimulus 
    • Neural stimulus 
    • Hormonal + Neural stimulus
    • Humoral stimulus
  74. Oxytocin is released by ________ is known to be also involved in ____________.
    posterior pituitary/uterus contraction
  75. The cells that sorround the oocyte and produce estrogen in the ovaries are called ________ .
    granulosa cells
  76. Secretion of progesterone after ovoluation stimulates ________.
    preparation of the endometrium of uterus for the implantation of fertilized egg
  77. Acetylcholine is the substance released by the axonal endings of the somatic efferent fibers and by the parasympathetic nerve fiber endings.
  78. Which of these cells are found in the retina?
    • bipolar cells 
    • photoreceptor cells 
    • ganglion cells
  79. Males often have a vasectomy, a surgical procedure that clips the ductus deferens, to prevent sperm from being ejaculated and causing pregnancies . It is interesting though that these individuals can still ejaculate the same amount of semen as before, why is that.
    Its becuase virtually all semen is produced by seminal and prostate gland
  80. Select the correct statement about testosterone control.
    GnRH from the hypothalamus causes LH release from the anterior pituitary, which stimulates the testes to secrete testosterone.
  81. A boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that FSH is no longer released, but LH is normal. After he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would ________.
    be unable to produce viable sperm
  82. Which of the following is true about photoreceptors?
    • Rods absorb light at varying degrees but confer only gray tone vision. 
    • Cones respond to bright light and provide high resolution color vision.
  83. The glucagon and the insulin have what kind of hormonal interaction?
  84. Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because ________.
    Sympathetic response involves activation of adrenal medulla and thus secretion of hormones
  85. During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________.
    progesterone levels are at their highest
  86. Control of endocrine activity in the posterior pituitary is a function of the ________.
  87. Which male hormone inhibits the secretion of FSH?
  88. The positive feedback mechanism that stimulates continued increase in FSH and LH release during the last few days of the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle has to do with ________.
    continued increase in number of granulosa cells and thus estrogene release
  89. Select the correct statement about the uterine cycle.
    If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.
  90. The long term-stress axis involve increased secretion of ________from the anterior pituitary gland and __________ from the adrenal cortex
    • ACTH 
    • cortisol
  91. The primary function of the uterus is to ________.
    receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum
  92. The primary function of the testes is to produce testosterone.
  93. The major targets of growth hormone are ________.
    bones and skeletal muscles
  94. When you are dehydrated your hypothalamus respondes by triggering the release of ________ hormone from the __________gland to increase the water retention via kidneys.
    • ADH
    • posterior pituitary
  95. Which hormone is absolutely necessary for ovulation to occur?
  96. The autonomic nervous system may cause activation or inhibition, depending on the division that is active and the target that is affected.
  97. Khumar and Harold went snorkeling in Keywest, FL and while snorkeling in a coral reef spotted a 6ft bull shark that caused them to have a number of physiological responses, among which were increased heart rate and pupil dilation. Which motor division is responsible for such physiological responses ________.
    sympathetic nervous system
  98. Select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle.
    High estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release.
  99. Virtually all of the steroid-based hormones exert their effects through ________.
    direct gene activation
  100. Which of the following hormones controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins?
  101. Which of the following appears to exert the most influence over autonomic function?
  102. Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the ________.
    connected capillary beds sorrounding the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland
  103. One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?
    humoral stimulation
  104. The function of the lens of the eye is to allow precise focusing of light on the retina.
  105. Which statments are true about the function of the ciliary body in the eye?
    • Accommodation for near vision
    • Production of aquous humor
  106. The pigmental layer of the retina prevents excessive scattering of light within the eye.
  107. The somatic and autonomic nervous systems differ in all of the following except ________.
    that their motor neurons have no common neurotransmitters
  108. Light passes through the following structures in which order?
    cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor
  109. The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that ________.
    in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced fromthe parent cell
  110. Which of the following describes the ANS?
    • involuntary nervous system
    • general visceral motor system
    • all system of motor neurons that innervates smooth and cardiac muscle and glands
  111. The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.
    the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
  112. Where would you find muscarinic receptors?
    all parasympathetic target organs
  113. Which of the following hormones is known for its calorigenic effect that causes an increases the cells metabolic rate and thus body heat production?
    thyroid hormone
  114. The parasympathetic tone ________.
    slows the heart, and dictates digestive tract activity
  115. Functionalis layer of the endometrium falls apart during proliferative phase of the uterine cycle.
  116. Which one of these is a unique sympathetic function? (Hint: This also means that the target recieves exclusively sympathetic innervation).
    regulation of body temperature
  117. Khumar and Harold finally make it to the White Castle and order their hamburgers. The division of the autonomic nervous system responsible for making Khumar's and Harold's digestive system stimulated ready to recieve that hamburger is the ________.
    parasympathetic division
  118. Normally menstruation (menses) occurs when ________.
    blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease
  119. _______________ is secreted in ____________ is known to elevate blood pressure via the renin-angiotensin pathway and the ________ hormone, which is released at high levels during stress, and cause sodium reabsorption in the kidneys?
    aldosterone/adrenal cortex/ACTHD) ACTH/adrenal cortex/cortisolAnswer:
  120. How do the testes respond to exposure to excessive body heat?
    They move away from the pelvic cavity.
  121. The posterior chamber of the eye is filled with aquous humor.
  122. Sperm become fully mature within the seminiferous tubules of the testes.
  123. Which of the choices below is a function of the urinary system?
    helps maintain homeostasis by controlling the composition, volume, and pressure of blood
  124. After drinking a litter of water the granular cells of the juxtaglomerular complex would respond to the change in bloodvolume ________.
    by reducing renin release
  125. Which of the following does not describe the juxtaglomerular complex?
    Its macula densa cells produce aldosterone.
  126. If the GFR is too low, needed substances may pass so quickly through the renal tubules that they are not absorbed andinstead are lost in the urine.
  127. In the absence of hormones, the distal tubule and collecting ducts are relatively impermeable to water.
  128. The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ______.
    plasma protein
  129. Proximal convoluted tubule
    site at which most of the tubular reabsorption occurs
  130. Glomerulus
    Site of filtrate formation
  131. collecting duct
    sigh that drains the distal convoluted tubule
  132. Pertitubular capillaries
    blood supply that directly recieves substances from the tubular cells.
  133. The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.
  134. What would happen if the glomerular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?
    Net filtration would increase.
  135. Which of the following is a structural characteristic that contributes to erythrocyte gas transport functions?
    considered mostly a hemoglobin containing-sack
  136. The primary source of newly formed RBCs in the adult human is in the red bone marrow.
  137. Which of the following is 100% reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
  138. Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?
    angiotensin II and aldosterone
  139. Which of the following refers to the intrinsic pathway (IP) of the coagulation process?
    Outside the body (such as in a test tube), only IP triggers triggers blood clotting.
  140. The second step in hemostasis refers to ______?
    platelet plug formation.
  141. The function of angiotensin II is to ________.
    increase the secretion of aldosterone
  142. Diffusion movement of solutes always occurs from areas of greater concentration to areas of lesser concentration.
  143. In osmosis, movement of water occurs toward the solution with the lower solute concentration.
  144. Which of the choices below is the salt level-monitoring part of the nephron?
    macula densa
  145. Which of the following is a protective function of blood?
    prevention of blood loss
  146. Which of the following might trigger erythropoiesis?
    hypoxia of EPO-producing cells
  147. What is the most direct function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
    help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys
  148. The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.
  149. Facilitated diffusion requires carrier proteins that use ATP.
  150. The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.
    by a decrease in the blood volume
  151. Which of the following proteins is considered critical for fibrinolysis?
  152. The juxtmedullary nephrons are associated with________, and are _________.
    vasa recta/mostly responsible for the osmotic concentration gradient
  153. Reabsorption of the Na and water by the renal tubules is fine tuned________.
    hormonally in the collecting ducts
  154. Which of the following statements is correct regarding net diffusion?
    The greater the concentration gradient, the faster the rate.
  155. The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the________.
    nephron loop
  156. Each hemoglobin molecule can transport two molecules of oxygen.
  157. Water reabsorption through the proximal convoluted tubule is termed obligatory water reabsorption, whereas waterreabsorption through the distal convoluted tubule is termed facultative water reabsorption, because it depends on thebodies needs.
  158. Passive membrane transport processes include ________.
    movement of a substance down its concentration gradient
  159. Which of the following would increase filtration rate ________. (more than one maybe true)
    • glomerulus surface area
    • increased glomerular hydrostatic pressure
  160. Which sequence is correct for the following events?
    formation of tissue factor > prothrombin -> thrombin > fibrinogen -> fibrin > clot retraction
  161. A red blood cell placed in a very hypotonic solution would ________.
    swell and burst
  162. Which of the following phases of hemostasis will take place when blood vessel damage is large?
  163. Filtration occurs in ________.
    • renal corpuscle
    • kidney cortex
  164. Which of the following statements is true of clot retraction?
    all of the above are true
  165. An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________.
    increase in the secretion of ADH
  166. Which of the choices below is a function of the nephron loop?
    creation of an osmotic concentration gradient via active and passive transport
  167. What organ in the body secretes a hormone that is important in erythrocyte production?
  168. 1. major calyx
    2. minor calyx
    3. nephron
    4. urethra
    5. ureter
    6. collecting duct
    3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4
  169. Which of the following is not true regarding creation of an osmotic conctration gradient in the medulla?
    It is a purely passive transport process.
  170. Platelets ________.
    stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break
  171. Excretion of dilute urine requires ________ .
    decrease of ADH secretion/decreased number of aquaporins in collecting duct
  172. The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________.
    glomerular hydrostatic pressure
  173. If cells are placed in a hypertonic solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable, what couldhappen?
    The cells will lose water and shrink.
  174. The macula densa cells respond to ________.
    changes in solute content of the filtrate
  175. Lance Armstrong increased his erythrocyte count or hematocrit to get ahead in the game, but that could have provedfatal. This is because high hematocrit can cause_____.
    high blood viscosity and thus strokes and heart attacks
  176. The slowest step in the clotting process is ________.
    formation of prothrombin activator
  177. Interstitial fluid represents one type of extracellular material.