micro lecture test 2

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micro lecture test 2
2013-06-10 16:06:21
micro lecture test

micro lecture test 2
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  1. Define Metabolism:
    sum of all the chemical reactions in a cell
  2. Define catabolism
    converting energy from the environment into a usable form

    ATP is the usable form
  3. Define anabolism
    using energy from ATP to do work

    move the cell, make molecules, active transport, etc.
  4. Why study microbial metabolism?
    Look for differences between their metabolism and ours-gives us drug targets that won’t affect our cells
  5. Define Energy
    ability to do work
  6. What are the Two kinds of energy
    Kinetic-energy of motion

    Potential-stored energy
  7. What is kinetic energy
    energy of motion
  8. what is potential energy?
    stored energy
  9. What is the First Law of Thermodynamics
    energy is neither created nor destroyed, only transformed

    Essentially, energy is constantly going back and forth between kinetic and potential
  10. What is a Reactant?
    chemicals present before the reaction occurs

    A +   B  →   C  +   D

    A and B in the reaction above are the reactants
  11. What is a product?
    chemicals present after the reaction takes place

    A +   B  →   C  +   D

    C and D in the reaction above are the products
  12. What is exergonic reactions?
    have more energy stored in their reactants then in the products

    • Energy is released by the
    • reaction
  13. What is endergonic reactions?
    have more energy stored in their products then in the reactants

    Energy is stored by the reaction
  14. Metabolism does not happen in one big step, so how does it happen?
    • It usually contains a series of
    • small chemical reactions called a pathway

    Metabolic pathway
  15. Pathways can be what 3 shapes?
    • 1.Linear-one starting molecule
    • always makes one particular end product

    • 2.Branched-one starting molecule
    • can make more then one different end product

    • 3.Cyclical- the starting molecule
    • is regenerated at the end of the path way
  16. List the 5 Components of Metabolic Pathways-the things needed to make them happen
    • Component #1 ATP
    • Component #2 Energy Source
    • Component #3 Electron donor 
    • Component #4 Electron carriers
    • Component #5 Enzymes
  17. Explain Component #1 ATP
    Adenosine Triphosphate-usable energy molecule of cells

    The energy in those food molecules must be converted to ATP before cells can use it

    • 1.ATP has three phosphate groups attached (shown as a P
    • inside a circle above.) 

    • 2.In order to get energy out of ATP, one phosphate group
    • must be removed.  Breaking this bond
    • releases energy and turns ATP into ADP. Adenosine Diphosphate.

    • 3.ADP can be used to create ATP.  A phosphate groups is added to ADP, this is
    • called phosphorylation
    • (which requires energy to make the bond).
  18. what is phosphorylation
    adding a phosphate group onto ADP in order to create ATP
  19. What are the Three types of phosphorylation
    1. Substrate level phosphorylation-chemical energy from an exergonic reaction is used to add a phosphate group to ADP

    2. Oxidative phosphorylation-uses the energy of proton motive force to add a phosphate group to ADP

    • 3. Photophosphorylation-photosynthetic organisms use sunlight energy to create proton motive force, then use proton motive
    • force  to add a phosphate group to ADP
  20. Explain Component #2 Energy Source
    • In order to do metabolism, a food
    • source is needed
  21. What two molecules are sources of chemical energy (energy source)
    • 1.Organic molecules-contain C-C or
    • C-H bonds 

    • 2. Inorganic molecules-do not
    • contain C-C or C-H bonds
  22. What is a Redox reaction?
    • In order to get energy from the energy source a series of oxidation/reduction reactions must be
    • performed
  23. explain reduced (in redox reaction)
    the molecule that gains the electron is reduced
  24. explain oxidation (in redox reaction)
    the molecule that loses the electron is oxidized
  25. Explain Component #3 Electron donor
    The electron donor is the same as the energy source
  26. Explain Component #4 Electron carriers
    Molecules that take the electron from the electron donor and carry them to the electron transport chain in respiration
  27. What are the 3 kinds of electron carriers?
    NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)

    FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)

    NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)
  28. What are the 3 kinds of electron carriers Written in the oxidized form (when they do not have an electron
    • NAD+
    • FAD+ 
    • NADP+
  29. What are the 3 kinds of electron carriers Written in the reduced form (when they do have an electron)


  30. Explain Component #5 Enzymes
    They speed up the rate of reactions-make them happen faster
  31. What is an enzyme?
    • Definition-proteins that act as
    • catalysts

    • They speed up the rate of
    • reactions-make them happen faster
  32. Enzymes work on ______.
  33. What is a substrate?
    the reactants in a chemical reaction are the substrates.  Only use the term substrate if an enzyme is involved.)
  34. explain the Enzyme structure
    Active site-place where the substrates bind

    This is where the reaction occurs

    Products are released from the active site

    Enzyme is unchanged
  35. Having the enzyme bound to the active site
    ______ the activation energy
  36. What is activation energy
    • is the amount of energy
    • needed to start a reaction
  37. What are coenzymes?
    are organic and come from vitamins and trace mineral in our (human) diet
  38. What are Cofactors and Coenzymes
    assist or help an enzyme do its job
  39. Controlling Enzyme Activity:
    cells may want to temporarily turn an enzyme off to stop a reaction from occuring
  40. What is Allosteric regulation
    changing an enzyme’s shape to make it nonfunctional
  41. What is allosteric site?
    • place on an enzyme where an effector
    • molecule can bind
  42. what is noncompetitive inhibition
    • the effector molecule does not compete with the substrate for the active
    • site
  43. What is Feedback inhibition
    • This is a type of allosteric regulation where the effector molecule is one of the products
    • of the reaction.
  44. What is Competitive Inhibition
    • molecule called an inhibitor binds to the
    • active site preventing the substrates from binding

    Inhibitor does compete for the active site
  45. List the two metabolic pathways:
    • Central Metabolic Pathways &
    • Respiration

  46. What are the 4 parts to the Central Metabolic Pathway?
    • Four parts: 
    • 1. Glycolysis,
    • 2. Transition Step
    • 3. Kreb’s Cycle
    • 4.Electron Transfer Phosphorylation
    • (ETP is also known as Respiration)
  47. List the following for Glycolysis: 

    1.Molecule in (used to start the

    2.Molecule out (leaving the

    3.Location of the process in
    prokaryotes and eukaryotes

    4.How many ATP are produced (if

    5.Type of phosphorylation used to make ATP

    6.How many electron carriers are
    reduced (gain an electron) in the process
    1.Molecule in -Glucose 

    2.Molecule out- two pyruvate

    3.in the cytoplasm of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes

    4.4 ATP are produced

    5.Substrate level phosphorylation is used

    6.2 NADH electron carriers are reduced (given electrons)
  48. List the following for Transition Step: 1.Molecule in (used to start theprocess)

    2.Molecule out (leaving theprocess)

    3.Location of the process inprokaryotes and eukaryotes

    4.How many ATP are produced (ifany)

    5.Type of phosphorylation used to make ATP

    6.How many electron carriers arereduced (gain an electron) in the process
    1.Molecule in- 2 pyruvate

    2.Molecule out-Acetyl CoA

    3.Location-cytoplasm for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes

    4. No ATP produced

    5. NONE

    6.2 NADH are reduced
  49. List the following for Kreb Cycle: 
    1.Molecule in (used to start theprocess)

    2.Molecule out (leaving theprocess)

    3.Location of the process inprokaryotes and eukaryotes

    4.How many ATP are produced (ifany)

    5.Type of phosphorylation used to make ATP

    6.How many electron carriers arereduced (gain an electron) in the process
    1.Molecule in-2 Acetyl CoA

    2.Molecule out-electron carriers

    • 3.Location-cytoplasm of prokaryotes,
    • mitochondria of eukaryotes

    4.2 ATP produced 

    5.substrate level phosphorylation

    6.6 NADH and two FADH are reduced
  50. what are other names for the Kreb cycle?
    the TCA cycle (for tricarboxylic acid cycle), the citric acid cycle, and the Kreb’s cycle
  51. List the following for Electron Transfer Phosphorylation a.k.a. Respiration : 

    1.Molecule in (used to start theprocess)

    2.Molecule out (leaving theprocess)

    3.Location of the process inprokaryotes and eukaryotes

    4.How many ATP are produced (ifany)

    5.Type of phosphorylation used to make ATP

    6.How many electron carriers arereduced (gain an electron) in the process
    • 1.Molecule in-all of the electron carriers
    • reduced in the previous 3 steps:

    2 NADH from glycolysis, 2 NADH from transition step, 6 NADH from TCA cycle, and 2 FADH from TCA cycle

    2.Molecule out-ATP

    3.Location-cell membrane of prokaryotes, inner membrane of mitochondria for eukaryotes

    4.32-34 ATP made 

    5.by oxidative phosphorylation

  52. what is another name for respiration?
    Electron Transfer Phosphorylation
  53. An electron transport chain (ETC) is used to:
    generate proton motive force
  54. What is ETC?
    • The ETC is a series of molecules
    • inserted in the membrane

    • Electrons are given to the chain
    • by the electron carriers (NADH and FADH)

    • The electrons are passed from one
    • molecule in the chain to the next

    • As this happens, protons are
    • pumped to the outside of the cell
  55. Aerobic respiration means :
    that oxygen takes the electron

    • Water is formed (called metabolic
    • water)

    • this process is aerobic because oxygen takes the electron at the end of the electron
    • transport chain.

    • This is the reason we have to
    • inhale oxygen
  56. The ____ creates a separation of charges;
    positive outside the membrane and negative inside.  This is called proton motive force and it is a form of energy (Iike the separation of charges in a battery, the
    positive end from the negative end)
  57. how many  proton(s) at a time is allowed back across the membrane
  58. Each NADH is worth about how many ATP?
  59. each FADH is worth about how many ATP?
  60. This is the maximum amount that can be produced under optimal
  61. Under less then optimal conditions, only ____ ATP will be made
  62. What is fermentation?
    • Fermentation is the incomplete breakdown of a
    • carbohydrate (We will use glucose.)
  63. Why is fermentation incomplete?
    It is incomplete because the glucose will not be broken down into individual carbon dioxide molecules

    • There will be an end product that
    • is 2 or 3 carbons long  (c-c or c-c-c)
  64. What is anaerobic?
    • Anaerobic-this process does not
    • require oxygen
  65. The first part of fermentation is
  66. The second part of fermentation is____ and what does it do?
    end product formation.

    • This takes the pyruvate (molecule out) of glycolysis and transforms it into an end
    • product.
  67. Name 4 types of end products:
    1.Lactic Acid

    2. Ethanol

    3. Propionic Acid

    4. 2, 3 butanediol and acetoin
  68. Explain Lactic Acid (an end product of fermentation)
    Pyruvate isconverted into lactic acid by lactic acid bacteria (Genus:  Lactobacillus) 

    gives yogurt its tangy flavor

    They are also a normal resident of the human vagina

    During heavy exercise, when we are out of breath, some of our muscle cells are not getting enough oxygen from the blood to do the central metabolic pathway
  69. Explain Ethanol (an end product of fermentation)
    This is drinkable alcohol

    Yeast convert pyruvate into ethanol

    Makes yeast rise

  70. Explain Propionic Acid (an end product of fermentation)
    Produced by Propionicbacterium

    These are the bacteria added to milk to make swiss cheese

    Propionic acid gives swiss cheese its flavor
  71. Explain n2, 3 butanediol and acetoin (an end product of fermentation)
    • These two chemicals are always
    • produced together

    They are made as end products by some types of coliform bacteria

    Coliform means intestinal
  72. What describes chemical reactions that convert food energy into ATP?
  73. what is the process used to convert ADP to ATP using energy gained by using light to make proton motive force?
  74. What describes any molecule that has gained an electron?
  75. In competitive inhibition, this site is blocked.
    active site
  76. Makes reactions happen faster
  77. Chemicals present at the beginning of a reaction, with an enzyme present
  78. When this site is occupied during allosteric regulation, the reaction does not occur
    allosteric site
  79. Energy needed for a reaction to occur
    activation energy
  80. Chemicals present when the reaction is over.
  81. Chemicals present at the beginning of a reaction, without an enzyme present.
  82. Which processes use substrate level phosphorylation?

    Fermentation that produces ethanol 

    Fermentation that produces lactic acid   

    Kreb's cycle (TCA cycle)
  83. The incomplete breakdown of glucose is
  84. One glucose molecule is put through the central metabolic pathways including glycolysis, transition step, TCA cycle and aerobic respiration in a bacterial cell under less than optimal conditions.  How many ATP are produced from oxidative phosphorylation only?
  85. Bacteria in swiss cheese
    propionic acid
  86. which fermentation do Humans use
    lactic acid
  87. Bacteria in yogurt
    actic acid
  88. which fermentation is associated with yeast