Microbiology Test 1

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MeganM
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Microbiology Test 1
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2013-06-13 10:54:24
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Microbiology
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  1. A living thing ordinarily too small to be seen without magnification.
    Microorganism
  2. Person responsible for the development of the Cell Theory of Life.
    Robert Hook
  3. Credited with the first vaccine.
    Edward Jenner
  4. Who laid the foundation for Pasteur's later work with other vaccinations?
    Edward Jenner
  5. An English surgeon that applied ideas of the germ theory to surgery (childbed fever).
    Joseph Lister
  6. Responsible for the first antiseptic used in surgery and proved that MICROBES cause surgical infections.
    Joseph Lister
  7. Developed the "salvation from syphilis" agent.
    Paul Ehrlich
  8. Developed technique for determining the actual microbial cause agent of a disease; discovered TB bug and cause of anthrax.
    Robert Koch
  9. He discovered that plant disease can be caused by small organisms that were so small they pass through filters. The tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was identified as the cause.
    Iwanowski
  10. Observed mold growing on a bacteria culture & a ring of clearing where it was not growing - which was found to be the Penicillium species.
    Alexander Fleming
  11. _______ are natural agents, whereas _______ are chemicals produced in labs.
    Antibiotics; synthetic drugs
  12. What are 3 problems with synthetic drugs?
    toxicity, resistance, allergic rxns
  13. Devised the curved necked flasks that prevented contaminated air from reaching boiled beef broth - the broth remained uncontaminated even though exposed to the air.
    Pasteur
  14. Proved that fermentation was caused by a microbe (yeast); developed vaccines for rabies and anthrax; began the revolution in science that led to the golden age of Microbiology.
    Pasteur
  15. Opposed the prevailing theory of Spontaneous Generation. He used covered jars of meat to show that maggots came from flies. Life comes from life!
    Francisco Redi
  16. Developed a vaccine by treating the virus with formalin inactivated polio virus (IPV) & developed the polio vaccine.
    Salk
  17. Showed that DNA is genetic material.
    Avery, Macleod & McCarthy
  18. Discovered the DNA double helix
    Watson & Cricke
  19. He developed a polio vaccine by treating the virus with formalin inactivated polio virus (IPV).
    Salk
  20. He developed a live Polio virus vaccine, the oral polio vaccine (OPV).
    Sabin
  21. The work done with the Polio virus is used for modern day advances in which specific types of viruses?
    • HIV
    • Hepatitis
  22. Producing a pure culture.
    Innoculation
  23. A colony on media, one kind of microbe, pure culture.
    Isolation
  24. Growing microbes under proper conditions
    Incubation
  25. Observation of characteristics (data).
    Inspection
  26. Use of data, correaltion, to ID organism to exact species
    Identification
  27. When light bounces off an object (like a mirror).
    reflected
  28. When light passes through glass, it is _______.
    transmitted.
  29. When light is soaked (black colored paper), it is ______.
    absorbed
  30. When light is scattered as it passes through bugs on a dirty windshield, it is _______.
    DIfracted
  31. When light bends as it passes through glass lenses, or when you see objects under water, it is ________.
    REfracted
  32. The degree of bending of light, based on lens material and shape.
    Refractive index
  33. The best magnification on our scopes is achieved with what objective?
    Oil immersion
  34. The cell walls of bacteria are __________.
    peptidoglycan
  35. Cell walls of bacteria are a polymer of _____ and _____ cross-linked with a ______ chain.
    NAG; NAM; Polypeptide
  36. What is the aseptic technique?
    without contamination
  37. What does it mean when you have a pure culture?
    one kind of organism
  38. What diseases do fleas transmit?
    • Plague
    • Rabbit Fever
  39. What disease do mosquitos transmit?
    malaria
  40. What disease do body lice transmit?
    typhus
  41. What disease do flies transmit?
    sleeping sickness (trypanosoma)
  42. What are the two types of round worms?
    • Ascara
    • Pinworms
  43. What is the basis of helminth classification?
    morphology of the adult worm
  44. What are flat worms called?
    platyhelminths
  45. What is the name for round worms?
    Nematodes
  46. What are the two types of platyhelminths?
    • Cestodes (tape worms)
    • Trematodes (leaf-life "flukes")
  47. What is a cestode?
    a tape worm
  48. What are two examples of a cestode (tape worm)?
    • Taenia Saginata (Beef)
    • Taenia Solium (Pork)
  49. In what two forms can protozoans exist?
    • Trophozooite (active feeding form)
    • Cyst (non-active "survival" form)
  50. On what are the classes of protozoans based?
    motility
  51. What are the 4 classes of protozoans?
    • Flagellates
    • Ciliates
    • Sarcodinans (Pseudopods)
    • Sporozoans
  52. What are some examples of flagellate protozoans?
    • Euglena
    • Giardia
    • Trypanosoma
  53. What are two examples of Sarcodinan (pseudopod) protozoans?
    • Ameba proteus
    • Entameba histolytica
  54. What is an example of a Ciliate protozoa?
    B. Coli  (Balantidium Coli)
  55. What is the only ciliate protozoa that causes disease?
    B. Coli
  56. Which class of protozoans are not motile?
    Sporozoans
  57. What is the genus of sporozoans that causes malaria?
    Plasmodium
  58. What are the 5 characteristics of fungi?
    • Saprophytes (live on dead decaying stuff)
    • Heterotrophs (don't make own food)
    • Have cell walls made of chitin
    • A few are parasites
    • A few cause serious human diseases
  59. What are the four classes of fungi?
    • Zygomycetes
    • Ascomycetes
    • Basidiomycetes
    • Deuteromycetes
  60. What is an example of a zygomycetes fungi?
    Rhizopus (bread mold)
  61. What is an example of a fungi in the class ascomycetes?
    penicillium
  62. What is an example of a fungi in the class deuteromycetes?
    candida
  63. Some molds have two forms, meaning they are _______.
    dimorphic
  64. Name a specific disease that molds can cause.
    Meningitis
  65. What is the most significant economic problem with fungi?
    they cause plant disease
  66. What are the 3 types of fungi?
    • Yeasts
    • Molds
    • Mushrooms
  67. ______ is a multicellular fungi.
    mold
  68. What is the science of fungi?
    Mycology
  69. What is the function of fungi?
    decomposition
  70. What genus of gram negative cocci causes gonorrhea?
    Neisseria
  71. The genus bacillus forms ________.
    endospores
  72. An organelle that contains enzymes that break down free radicals.
    peroxisome
  73. What is the name of the enzyme in peroxisomes that break down free radicals into hydrogen peroxide?
    SOD
  74. What is the name of the enzyme in peroxisomes that break down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen?
    catylase
  75. An anitmicrobial agent is said to be _______ if it slows or stops the growth of the microbe.
    Microbiostatic
  76. The best definition of __________ is that it kills all forms of life INCLUDING endospores.
    Sterilization
  77. To physically remove surface oils, debris, and soil from skin to reduce the microbial load.
    degerming
  78. Chemical treatments to kill or inhibit the growth of all vegetative microorganisms on body surfaces.
    Antisepsis
  79. To clean inanimate objects using soap and degerming agents so that they are safe and free of high levels of microorganisms.
    Sanitize
  80. Process by which all Clostridium botulinum endospores and all other pathogenic microorganisms are destroyed, as well as microorganisms which could produce spoilage under conditions of normal, nonrefridgerated storage & distribution in sealed containers.
    Commercial Sterilization
  81. The least time required to kill all cells of a culture at a specified temperature.
    Thermal death time
  82. Chemical that kill microorganisms.
    Microbiocide
  83. Most common halogens used in disinfectants and antiseptics.
    chlorine & iodine
  84. A halogen that kills bacteria, endospores and also fungi & viruses.
    chlorine
  85. A halogen that rapidly penetrates the cells of microorganisms, & disturbs a variety of metabolic functions by interfering with the hydrogen & disulfide bonding of proteins.
    Iodine
  86. A stronger ______ soln is used primarily as a disinfectant for plastic items, rubber instruments, cutting blades, thermometers, and other inanimate items.
    iodine
  87. An acrid, poisonous compound derived from the distillation of coal tar.
    phenol
  88. Strongly microbicidal and will destroy vegetative bacteria, fungi, and most viruses (not Hep B).
    phenol
  89. In this microscope, objects are dark against a bright background.
    Bright field (most common)
  90. This microscope has a special condenser; objects are light agains a dark background.
    Dark field
  91. This type of microscope is used to see live unstained microbes.
    Dark field
  92. With this microscope, live specimens appear with more internal contrast.
    Phase contrast
  93. These bacteria cause human diseases and require a lower oxygen environment. They often grow best in cultural environments rich in organic nutrients like blood agar.
    Pathogens
  94. A microbe that grows best in a low oxygen and increased carbon dioxide atmosphere (candle jar).
    aerophobic
  95. A microbe that grows best in the complete absence of oxygen (brewer jar).
    anaerobic
  96. This electron microscope reveals tremendous surface detail at very high magnification and resolution.
    Scanning
  97. This electron microscope reveals tremendous internal structural detail at very high magnification and resolution.
    Transmission
  98. This light microscope reveals morphological detail at normal magnification and resolution without distortion because objects are not stained.
    Dark field
  99. This light microscope reveals surface detail at normal magnification and resolution but objects, though UNSTAINED, appear light against a contrasting background.
    Phase contrast
  100. Which type of microscope is often used to see bacterial endospores and the rare bacterial cyst WITHOUT staining?
    Bifocal
  101. The type of light microscope that uses special dyes and ultra violet light.
    Transmission
  102. The type of light microscopy that us used in STD labs for the syphilis microbe.
    transmission

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