A living thing ordinarily too small to be seen without magnification.
Person responsible for the development of the Cell Theory of Life.
Credited with the first vaccine.
Who laid the foundation for Pasteur's later work with other vaccinations?
An English surgeon that applied ideas of the germ theory to surgery (childbed fever).
Responsible for the first antiseptic used in surgery and proved that MICROBES cause surgical infections.
Developed the "salvation from syphilis" agent.
Developed technique for determining the actual microbial cause agent of a disease; discovered TB bug and cause of anthrax.
He discovered that plant disease can be caused by small organisms that were so small they pass through filters. The tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was identified as the cause.
Observed mold growing on a bacteria culture & a ring of clearing where it was not growing - which was found to be the Penicillium species.
_______ are natural agents, whereas _______ are chemicals produced in labs.
Antibiotics; synthetic drugs
What are 3 problems with synthetic drugs?
toxicity, resistance, allergic rxns
Devised the curved necked flasks that prevented contaminated air from reaching boiled beef broth - the broth remained uncontaminated even though exposed to the air.
Proved that fermentation was caused by a microbe (yeast); developed vaccines for rabies and anthrax; began the revolution in science that led to the golden age of Microbiology.
Opposed the prevailing theory of Spontaneous Generation. He used covered jars of meat to show that maggots came from flies. Life comes from life!
Developed a vaccine by treating the virus with formalin inactivated polio virus (IPV) & developed the polio vaccine.
Showed that DNA is genetic material.
Avery, Macleod & McCarthy
Discovered the DNA double helix
Watson & Cricke
He developed a polio vaccine by treating the virus with formalin inactivated polio virus (IPV).
He developed a live Polio virus vaccine, the oral polio vaccine (OPV).
The work done with the Polio virus is used for modern day advances in which specific types of viruses?
Producing a pure culture.
A colony on media, one kind of microbe, pure culture.
Growing microbes under proper conditions
Observation of characteristics (data).
Use of data, correaltion, to ID organism to exact species
When light bounces off an object (like a mirror).
When light passes through glass, it is _______.
When light is soaked (black colored paper), it is ______.
When light is scattered as it passes through bugs on a dirty windshield, it is _______.
When light bends as it passes through glass lenses, or when you see objects under water, it is ________.
The degree of bending of light, based on lens material and shape.
The best magnification on our scopes is achieved with what objective?
The cell walls of bacteria are __________.
Cell walls of bacteria are a polymer of _____ and _____ cross-linked with a ______ chain.
NAG; NAM; Polypeptide
What is the aseptic technique?
What does it mean when you have a pure culture?
one kind of organism
What diseases do fleas transmit?
What disease do mosquitos transmit?
What disease do body lice transmit?
What disease do flies transmit?
sleeping sickness (trypanosoma)
What are the two types of round worms?
What is the basis of helminth classification?
morphology of the adult worm
What are flat worms called?
What is the name for round worms?
What are the two types of platyhelminths?
Cestodes (tape worms)
Trematodes (leaf-life "flukes")
What is a cestode?
a tape worm
What are two examples of a cestode (tape worm)?
Taenia Saginata (Beef)
Taenia Solium (Pork)
In what two forms can protozoans exist?
Trophozooite (active feeding form)
Cyst (non-active "survival" form)
On what are the classes of protozoans based?
What are the 4 classes of protozoans?
What are some examples of flagellate protozoans?
What are two examples of Sarcodinan (pseudopod) protozoans?
What is an example of a Ciliate protozoa?
B. Coli (Balantidium Coli)
What is the only ciliate protozoa that causes disease?
Which class of protozoans are not motile?
What is the genus of sporozoans that causes malaria?
What are the 5 characteristics of fungi?
Saprophytes (live on dead decaying stuff)
Heterotrophs (don't make own food)
Have cell walls made of chitin
A few are parasites
A few cause serious human diseases
What are the four classes of fungi?
What is an example of a zygomycetes fungi?
Rhizopus (bread mold)
What is an example of a fungi in the class ascomycetes?
What is an example of a fungi in the class deuteromycetes?
Some molds have two forms, meaning they are _______.
Name a specific disease that molds can cause.
What is the most significant economic problem with fungi?
they cause plant disease
What are the 3 types of fungi?
______ is a multicellular fungi.
What is the science of fungi?
What is the function of fungi?
What genus of gram negative cocci causes gonorrhea?
The genus bacillus forms ________.
An organelle that contains enzymes that break down free radicals.
What is the name of the enzyme in peroxisomes that break down free radicals into hydrogen peroxide?
What is the name of the enzyme in peroxisomes that break down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen?
An anitmicrobial agent is said to be _______ if it slows or stops the growth of the microbe.
The best definition of __________ is that it kills all forms of life INCLUDING endospores.
To physically remove surface oils, debris, and soil from skin to reduce the microbial load.
Chemical treatments to kill or inhibit the growth of all vegetative microorganisms on body surfaces.
To clean inanimate objects using soap and degerming agents so that they are safe and free of high levels of microorganisms.
Process by which all Clostridium botulinum endospores and all other pathogenic microorganisms are destroyed, as well as microorganisms which could produce spoilage under conditions of normal, nonrefridgerated storage & distribution in sealed containers.
The least time required to kill all cells of a culture at a specified temperature.
Thermal death time
Chemical that kill microorganisms.
Most common halogens used in disinfectants and antiseptics.
chlorine & iodine
A halogen that kills bacteria, endospores and also fungi & viruses.
A halogen that rapidly penetrates the cells of microorganisms, & disturbs a variety of metabolic functions by interfering with the hydrogen & disulfide bonding of proteins.
A stronger ______ soln is used primarily as a disinfectant for plastic items, rubber instruments, cutting blades, thermometers, and other inanimate items.
An acrid, poisonous compound derived from the distillation of coal tar.
Strongly microbicidal and will destroy vegetative bacteria, fungi, and most viruses (not Hep B).
In this microscope, objects are dark against a bright background.
Bright field (most common)
This microscope has a special condenser; objects are light agains a dark background.
This type of microscope is used to see live unstained microbes.
With this microscope, live specimens appear with more internal contrast.
These bacteria cause human diseases and require a lower oxygen environment. They often grow best in cultural environments rich in organic nutrients like blood agar.
A microbe that grows best in a low oxygen and increased carbon dioxide atmosphere (candle jar).
A microbe that grows best in the complete absence of oxygen (brewer jar).
This electron microscope reveals tremendous surface detail at very high magnification and resolution.
This electron microscope reveals tremendous internal structural detail at very high magnification and resolution.
This light microscope reveals morphological detail at normal magnification and resolution without distortion because objects are not stained.
This light microscope reveals surface detail at normal magnification and resolution but objects, though UNSTAINED, appear light against a contrasting background.
Which type of microscope is often used to see bacterial endospores and the rare bacterial cyst WITHOUT staining?
The type of light microscope that uses special dyes and ultra violet light.
The type of light microscopy that us used in STD labs for the syphilis microbe.