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what covers the ovary?
The Bartholin's glands (greater vestibular glands):
- Located slightly posterior and bilateral to the opening of the vagina
- Secrete mucus to lubricate the vagina
- Homologous to bulbourethral glands in males (cowper’s gland)
- During sexual arousal produces pre-ejaculate (clear, salty, viscous secretion which lubricates urethra for spermatozoa to pass through, neutralizing traces of acidic urine and helps flush out any residual urine or foreign matter)
- No sperm assoc, just lubricating fluid
Paraurethral glands (skene's glands) aka female prostate:
- Located on anterior wall of vagina, lower end of urethra
- May be part of the G-spot and surrounded by tissue that is part of clitoris
- Swells with blood during sexual arousal
- Postulated as the source of female ejaculation
what are the internal iliac artery branches?
- uterine artery
- vaginal artery
ovarian artery is a branch off the:
The most posterior fibers of the Bulbospongiousus Muscle meet with the most
anterior muscular fibers of the External Anal Sphincter at a meeting point of muscles known as
the perineal body
The Bulbospongiousus Muscles are attached to the underside of this transverse partition called the
The two Bulbospongiousus Muscles surround
“Erectile Tissue” (which is referred to as the Bulb of the Vestibule)
perineal membrane is a flat partition of fibromuscular tissue that breaches:
it lies directly above what?
- breaches the space btwn the ischial pubic rami
- directly above the Bulb of the Vestibule
what 2 structures run thru the ischial rectal fossa?
principle component of the pelvic diaphragm?
right levator ani muscle
The Crura and Body of the Clitoris are formed from
The Glans of the Clitoris is richly endowed with:
afferent nerve endings
Muscles of mastication is cranial nerve:
Muscle of closing eyes is cranial nerve
facial muscles are innervated by CN:
Opening eye is cranial nerve:
what happens when these muscle contract separately and together?
- -open and close the eye lid
- -close eyelids gently
- -contraction together closes eyelids tightly
- -contraction of just the palpebrae gently closes eyelids
function of orbicularis oris:
- Action is to close the oral commissure & press lips together
- The oris and the oculi serve as attachments for other muscles
- Majority of the facial muscles meet at the oris
- Its more superficial fibers encircle the commisure and its deeper laterally placed fibers join with the Buccinator Muscle
- The opening between the lips
- surrounded by the Orbicularis Oris Muscle
- Pulls on oris from above and behind
- Arises from the zygomatic bone
- Pulls on oris from behind
- Arises in the fascia over the Parotid Gland
- most variable- some have it, some don't
- Pulls up from above, raises the upper lip
- Arises from orbicularis oculi on the lateral face of the zygomatic bone
Levator Anguli Oris:
- Pulls up from above, raises the upper lip
- Arising from the canine fossa, immediately below the infraorbital foramen
Levator Labii Superioris Alaequae Nasi
- Just lateral to the nose extending up towards the eye
- Attaching to the Alar Cartilage of the Nose
- Dilates the nostril & can raise the upper lip
a collection of structures that cover the cranium and consists of muscles and aponeurosis
sheet of tendon, over the dome of the skull
what 2 muscles attach to the galea?
and what happens when these 2 muscles contract?
- raises the eyebrows
what muscles accentuate frowning?
- depressor supercili
- corrugator supercili
4 sutures of the skull:
- Coronal- join the frontal and parietal bone
where does the sagittal suture meet on top of the skull?
- vertex of the skull
- on exam
Temporal bone articulates:
- Basilar part of the occipital
- Parietal bone
- Occipital bone
what structure attaches the mastoid process?
zygomatic arch is formed by the:
the zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone
Underside of the temporal bone articulates with:
Condyle of the mandible to form the TMJ
location of the Stylomastoid foramen and what structure passes thru here?
- Located At the base of the styloid
- Facial nerve passes thru it and gives off 5 branches
Extrinsic muscles of the tongue:
and what is their innervation:
- Styloglossus muscle (innervated by th hypoglossal nerve)
- Stylohyoid muscle (innervated by facial nerve)
- Stylopharyngeus muscle (innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve)
Stylohyoid ligament extends from:
extends from the apex of the process to the lesser cornu of the hyoid bone, and in some instances is partially, in others completely, ossified.
is a specialized band of the cervical fascia, which extends from near the apex of the styloid process of the temporal bone to the angle and posterior border of the angle of the mandible, between the Masseter and Pterygoideus internus.
What two structures lie medial to the styloid process and are 2 major opening for blood vessels?
- Carotid canal- passing forwards for entrance of the internal carotid artery
- Jugular foramen- passing backwards for entrance of the internal jugular vein
Spinal accessory Innervates:
Innervates trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscle
What attaches to the coronoid process? (the first process on the mandible; 2ndprocess is the condyle)
What bone is part of the pterygoid plate?
What structural delineation divides the floor of the cranium into 3 parts?
- Sphenoid ridges
- Petrous temporal bones
What structure passes thru the cribriform plate?
Filaments of the olfactory nerve, which detect the sense of smell
Flat area behind the cribiform plates serves as the:
roof of the nasal cavity
The sphenoid bone forms part of the:
Posterior/lateral orbital wall
What is the main feature of the sella turcica? Other features?
- Main: is the depression for the Pituitary Gland - the Pituitary Fossa
- A shallow groove- groove for the 2 optic nerves
- The four projections- the anterior and posterior clinoid processes
Dorsum sellae is continuous with the:
Base of the occiput
The “five largest” bones of the Facial Skeleton include:
- Frontal Bone
- Zygomatic Bone
- Maxillary Bone
- Sphenoid Bone
- Ethmoid Bone
maxilla forms much of the:
underside of the pallet
which bone contains the largest of the paranasal sinsuses?
- the maxilla
- its primarily hollow
- contains the maxillary sinus
The vertical part of the cleft is called the
The horizontal part of the cleft is called
the Inferior Orbital Fissure
The Inferior Orbital Fissure seen from the front separates
the Maxillary Wall of the Orbit and the Sphenoid Wall of the Orbit
Greater orbital fissure borders are the:
lesser orbital tissue is the:
- the lesser and greater wing of the sphenoid
- the greater wing of the sphenoid and the maxillary bone
the 3 projections on the sphenoid bone:
- The Lesser Wing
- The Greater Wing
- The Pterygoid Process
Central Part of the Sphenoid includes:
- the Clinoid Processes and the Pituitary Fossa
- Central Part of the Sphenoid Bone is actually “Hollow”
highest part of the sphenoid bone:
which separates the:
- the lesser wing
- separates the Anterior and Middle Cranial Fossa
optic canal carries:
- optic nerve
- ophthalmic artery
what joins to form the posterior aspect of the orbit?
the greater wing and lesser wing of the sphenoid
what separates the greater and lesser wing more medially?
and what does this transmit?
- Superior orbital Fissure
- transmit the motor nerve supply to the muscles of the eye (oculomotor, trochlear, & abducens)
what muscle wraps a 90 degree turn around the hamulus?
when is this imp?
- tensor veli palatine
- imp when swallowing
perpendicular plate is an extension of the:
and merges with the:
only parts of the ethmoid bone that can be seen in the intact skull is:
- a “small part of the Anterior Cranial Fossa”
- The two Cribriform Plates with the Crista Galli in-between
- and the small part of the Ethmoid bone seen in each medial Orbit
The Lacrimal Bone forms the:
the “most medial part” of the Orbital Margin
There is an opening between the Lacrimal bone and the Ethmoid Bone for the:
Nasolacrimal Duct – which is a conduit for tears in the orbit to pass through to the nasal cavity
The lacrimal gland is located in the hollow of the upper, outer part of the orbit (in the frontal bone), but the tears drain down into:
the lacrimal sac located in the lacrimal fossa, which is found in the inferior medial part of the orbit(between the lacrimal and maxillary bone)
Palatine bone forms the
forming the Posterior Part of the Hard Pallet and “on each side” forming part of the Side Wall of the Nasal Cavity
what nerves travel thru the superior orbital fissure?
- 3,4, & 6
- oculomotor, trochlear, & abducens
what comes out of the foramen rotundum?
- maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve
- it does NOT open into the orbit
where does the foramen rotundum open into?
Pterygoid Maxillary Fissure
what structure passes thru the foramen ovale?
Mandibular Branch of the Trigeminal Nerve
what structure passes thru the foramen spinosum?
the middle meningeal artery and vein, recurrent meningeal nerve (from CN V3)
what structure passes thru the foramen lacerum?
the internal carotid artery
the opening on the underside of the foramen lacerum is filled with:
- “Dense Cartilage and Fibrous Tissue”
- Fibrous Tissue also fills in the ragged part of the Internal Bony Opening