Anatomy exam 1 part 1

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merazar15
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Anatomy exam 1 part 1
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2013-06-10 21:25:18
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part anatomy exam1 HEENT
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HEENT part 1
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  1. what covers the ovary?
    tunica albuginea
  2. The Bartholin's glands (greater vestibular glands):
    location:
    function:
    • Located slightly posterior and bilateral to the opening of the vagina
    • Secrete mucus to lubricate the vagina
    • Homologous to bulbourethral glands in males (cowper’s gland)
    •      During sexual arousal produces pre-ejaculate (clear, salty, viscous secretion which lubricates urethra for spermatozoa to pass through, neutralizing traces of acidic urine and helps flush out any residual urine or foreign matter)
    •      No sperm assoc, just lubricating fluid
  3. Paraurethral glands (skene's glands) aka female prostate:
    location:
    function:
    • Located on anterior wall of vagina, lower end of urethra
    • May be part of the G-spot and surrounded by tissue that is part of clitoris
    • Swells with blood during sexual arousal
    • Postulated as the source of female ejaculation
  4. what are the internal iliac artery branches?
    • uterine artery
    • vaginal artery
  5. ovarian artery is a branch off the:
    abd aorta
  6. The most posterior fibers of the Bulbospongiousus Muscle meet with the most
    anterior muscular fibers of the External Anal Sphincter at a meeting point of muscles known as
    the perineal body
  7. The Bulbospongiousus Muscles are attached to the underside of this transverse partition called the
    perineal membrane
  8. The two Bulbospongiousus Muscles surround
    “Erectile Tissue” (which  is referred to as the Bulb of the Vestibule)
  9. perineal membrane is a flat partition of fibromuscular tissue that breaches:
    it lies directly above what?
    • breaches the space btwn the ischial pubic rami
    • directly above the Bulb of the Vestibule
  10. what 2 structures run thru the ischial rectal fossa?
    • pudendal nerve
    • fat
  11. principle component of the pelvic diaphragm?
    right levator ani muscle
  12. The Crura and Body of the Clitoris are formed from
    erectile tissue
  13. The Glans of the Clitoris is richly endowed with:
    afferent nerve endings
  14. Muscles of mastication is cranial nerve:
    5
  15. Muscle of closing eyes is cranial nerve
    7
  16. facial muscles are innervated by CN:
    7
  17. Opening eye is cranial nerve:
    3
  18. function of:
    -the orbicularis:
    -palpebrae:
    what happens when these muscle contract separately and together?
    • -open and close the eye lid
    • -close eyelids gently
    • -contraction together closes eyelids tightly
    • -contraction of just the palpebrae gently closes eyelids
  19. function of orbicularis oris:
    • Action is to close the oral commissure & press lips together
    • The oris and the oculi serve as attachments for other muscles
    • Majority of the facial muscles meet at the oris
    • Its more superficial fibers encircle the commisure and its deeper laterally placed fibers join with the Buccinator Muscle
  20. oral commissure:
    • The opening between the lips
    • surrounded by the Orbicularis Oris Muscle
  21. zygomatc major:
    • Smile
    • Pulls on oris from above and behind
    • Arises from the zygomatic bone
  22. Risorius
    • Smile
    • Pulls on oris from behind
    • Arises in the fascia over the Parotid Gland
    • most variable- some have it, some don't
  23. zygomatic minor
    • Pulls up from above, raises the upper lip
    • Arises from orbicularis oculi on the lateral face of the zygomatic bone
  24. Levator Anguli Oris:
    • Pulls up from above, raises the upper lip
    • Arising from the canine fossa, immediately below the infraorbital foramen
  25. Levator Labii Superioris Alaequae Nasi
    • Just lateral to the nose extending up towards the eye
    • Attaching to the Alar Cartilage of the Nose
    • Dilates the nostril & can raise the upper lip
  26. epicranium:
    a collection of structures that cover the cranium and consists of muscles and aponeurosis
  27. galea:
    sheet of tendon, over the dome of the skull
  28. what 2 muscles attach to the galea?
    and what happens when these 2 muscles contract?
    • frontalis
    • occipitalis
    • raises the eyebrows
  29. what muscles accentuate frowning?
    • depressor supercili
    • procerus
    • corrugator supercili
  30. 4 sutures of the skull:
    • Lambdoidal
    • Squamous
    • Coronal- join the frontal and parietal bone
    • Sagittal
  31. where does the sagittal suture meet on top of the skull?
    • vertex of the skull
    • on exam
  32. Temporal bone articulates:
    • Basilar part of the occipital
    • Parietal bone
    • Occipital bone
  33. what structure attaches the mastoid process?
    SCM
  34. zygomatic arch is formed by the:
    the zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone
  35. Underside of the temporal bone articulates with:
    Condyle of the mandible to form the TMJ
  36. location of the Stylomastoid foramen and what structure passes thru here?
    • Located At the base of the styloid
    • Facial nerve passes thru it and gives off 5 branches
  37. Extrinsic muscles of the tongue:
    and what is their innervation:
    • Styloglossus muscle (innervated by th hypoglossal nerve)
    • Stylohyoid muscle (innervated by facial nerve)
    • Stylopharyngeus muscle (innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve)
  38. Stylohyoid ligament extends from:
    extends from the apex of the process to the lesser cornu of the hyoid bone, and in some instances is partially, in others completely, ossified.
  39. Stylomandibular ligament
    is a specialized band of the cervical fascia, which extends from near the apex of the styloid process of the temporal bone to the angle and posterior border of the angle of the mandible, between the Masseter and Pterygoideus internus.
  40. What two structures lie medial to the styloid process and are 2 major opening for blood vessels?
    • Carotid canal- passing forwards for entrance of the internal carotid artery
    • Jugular foramen- passing backwards for entrance of the internal jugular vein
  41. Spinal accessory Innervates:
    Innervates trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscle
  42. What attaches to the coronoid process? (the first process on the mandible; 2ndprocess is the condyle)
    temporalis
  43. What bone is part of the pterygoid plate?
    sphenoid bone
  44. What structural delineation divides the floor of the cranium into 3 parts?
    • Sphenoid ridges
    • Petrous temporal bones
  45. What structure passes thru the cribriform plate?
    Filaments of the olfactory nerve, which detect the sense of smell
  46. Flat area behind the cribiform plates serves as the:
    roof of the nasal cavity
  47. The sphenoid bone forms part of the:
    Posterior/lateral orbital wall
  48. What is the main feature of the sella turcica? Other features?
    • Main: is the depression for the Pituitary Gland - the Pituitary Fossa
    • A shallow groove- groove for the 2 optic nerves
    • The four projections- the anterior and posterior clinoid processes
  49. Dorsum sellae is continuous with the:
    Base of the occiput
  50. The “five largest” bones of the Facial Skeleton include:
    • Frontal Bone
    • Zygomatic Bone
    • Maxillary Bone
    • Sphenoid Bone
    • Ethmoid Bone
  51. maxilla forms much of the:
    underside of the pallet
  52. which bone contains the largest of the paranasal sinsuses?
    • the maxilla
    • its primarily hollow
    • contains the maxillary sinus
  53. The vertical part of the cleft is called the
    Pterygomaxillary Fissure
  54. The horizontal part of the cleft is called
    the Inferior Orbital Fissure
  55. The Inferior Orbital Fissure seen from the front separates
    the Maxillary Wall of the Orbit and the Sphenoid Wall of the Orbit
  56. Greater orbital fissure borders are the:
    lesser orbital tissue is the:
    • the lesser and greater wing of the sphenoid
    • the greater wing of the sphenoid and the maxillary bone
  57. the 3 projections on the sphenoid bone:
    • The Lesser Wing
    • The Greater Wing
    • The Pterygoid Process
  58. Central Part of the Sphenoid includes:
    • the Clinoid Processes and the Pituitary Fossa
    • Central Part of the Sphenoid Bone is actually “Hollow”
  59. highest part of the sphenoid bone:
    which separates the:
    • the lesser wing
    • separates the Anterior and Middle Cranial Fossa
  60. optic canal carries:
    • optic nerve
    • ophthalmic artery
  61. what joins to form the posterior aspect of the orbit?
    the greater wing and lesser wing of the sphenoid
  62. what separates the greater and lesser wing more medially?
    and what does this transmit?
    • Superior orbital Fissure
    • transmit the motor nerve supply to the muscles of the eye (oculomotor, trochlear, & abducens)
  63. what muscle wraps a 90 degree turn around the hamulus?
    when is this imp?
    • tensor veli palatine
    • imp when swallowing
  64. perpendicular plate is an extension of the:
    and merges with the:
    • ethmoid bone
    • crista galli
  65. only parts of the ethmoid bone that can be seen in the intact skull is:
    • —a “small part of the Anterior Cranial Fossa” —
    • The two Cribriform Plates with the Crista Galli in-between
    • —and the small part of the Ethmoid bone seen in each medial Orbit
  66. The Lacrimal Bone forms the:
    the “most medial part” of the Orbital Margin
  67. There is an opening between the Lacrimal bone and the Ethmoid Bone for the:
    Nasolacrimal Duct – which is a conduit for tears in the orbit to pass through to the nasal cavity
  68. The lacrimal gland is located in the hollow of the upper, outer part of the orbit (in the frontal bone), but the tears drain down into:
    the lacrimal sac located in the lacrimal fossa, which is found in the inferior medial part of the orbit(between the lacrimal and maxillary bone)
  69. Palatine bone forms the
    žforming the Posterior Part of the Hard Pallet and “on each side” forming part of the Side Wall of the Nasal Cavity
  70. what nerves travel thru the superior orbital fissure?
    • 3,4, & 6
    • oculomotor, trochlear, & abducens
  71. what comes out of the foramen rotundum?
    • maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve
    • V2
    • it does NOT open into the orbit
  72. where does the foramen rotundum open into?
    žPterygoid Maxillary Fissure
  73. what structure passes thru the foramen ovale?
    Mandibular Branch of the Trigeminal Nerve
  74. what structure passes thru the foramen spinosum?
    the middle meningeal artery and vein, recurrent meningeal nerve (from CN V3)
  75. what structure passes thru the foramen lacerum?
    the internal carotid artery
  76. the opening on the underside of the foramen lacerum is filled with:
    • ž“Dense Cartilage and Fibrous Tissue”
    • žFibrous Tissue also fills in the ragged part of the Internal Bony Opening

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