Music 162 Final Exam

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Music 162 Final Exam
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Music 162: American Popular Song
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  1. Carole King
    Singer-songwriter who wrote many hits in the 1960s with Gerry Goffin. In 1971, the succss of her album Tapestry made her a major recording star.
  2. Led Zeppelin
    British hard rock band that formed in London in 1968. Zeppelin's sledgehammer style of guitar-focused rock music drew on various influences, including urban blues, San Francisco psychedelia, and the virtuoso guitar playing Jimi Hendrix.
  3. Emerson, Lake, and Palmer
    Art rock band that formed in London in 1970. Their live album, Pictures at an Exhibition (1971) borowed its structural elements from a suite of piano pieces by the Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky (1839-8).
  4. Glen Campbell (1936)
    Starting in the late 1960s, Campbell had a string of crossover hits on the country and pop charts, inluding "Gentle on My Mind" (1967), "By the Time I Get to Pheonix" (1967), and "Wichita Lineman" (1968).
  5. Charlie Rich
    "The Silver Fox"; born in Arkansas iin 1932, he was a talented jazz and blues pianist. He switched to pop-oriented country music by the 1960s and scored a series of Number One crossover hits during the mid 1970s
  6. John Denver (b. John Henry Duetschendorf, 1943)
    Vocalist who recorded country pop hits such as "Thank God I'm a Country Boy" (1975). His pop-oriented hit records were despised by many in the traditional audience for country music.
  7. Olivia Newton John (b. 1948)
    Born in England, grew up in Australia. She scored a series of Top 10 country crossover hits during the mid 1970s.
  8. Dolly Parton (b. 1946)
    Parton was born in the hill country of Tennessee and began her recording career at age 11. She moved to Nashville in 1964 and built her career with regular appearances on country music radio and television.
  9. David Bowie
    "Glam Rock" pioneer who established the character of Ziggy Stardust
  10. Joni Mitchell (b. 1943)
    Singer-songwriter. Her album Blue (1971) consisted of a cycle of songs about the complexities of love.
  11. Carlos Santana (b. 1947)
    Born in Mexico, he began his musical career playing guitar in Tijuana. He formed hhis band in SF in the late 1960s. Their 1971 album Abraxas established a Latin Americn substream within rock.
  12. Donna Summer
    One of the biggest stars to emerge from disco in the 1970s. She sang on several disco classics, including "Bad Girls".
  13. AOR (album-oriented rock)
    Aimed at young white mailes aged 13 to 25. The AOR format featured hard rock bands, such as Led Zeppelin and Deep Purple, and art rock bands, such as King Crimson; Emerson, Lake, and Palmer; and Pink Floyd. AOR generally excluded black artists
  14. art rock
    Form of rock music that blended elements of rock and European classical music. It included bands such as King Crimson; Emerson, Lake, and Palmer; and Pink Floyd.
  15. Bakersfield sound
    Stood in direct opposition to the slick sound of much Nashville country music. Popularized by musicians like Merle Haggard and Buck Owens, this was one of the most influential country genres of the late 1960s. It revived the spirit of postwar honky-tonk and set the stage for subsequent movements such as country rock and outlaw country
  16. bubble gum
    Cheerful songs aimed mainly at the preteen audience: The Jackson Five, the Osmonds.
  17. country pop
    A style of soft rock, lightly tinged with country music influences: John Denver, Olivia Newton-John, Kenny Rogers
  18. disco
    Form of  dance music popular in the late 1970s, characterized by elaborate studio production and an insistent beat; Donna Summer, Chic, the Village People, the Bee Gees.
  19. glam rock
    short for glamour rock"; emphasized elaborate, showy personal appearance and costuming: David Bowie
  20. hardcore country
    "Back to basics" spirit of country music that included the straightforward, emotionally direct approach of postwar honky-tonk. It is perhaps best captured in the recordings of Merle Haggard.
  21. heavy metal
    Genre that developed out of hard rock in the 1970s and achieved mainstream success in the 1980s.
  22. Philadelphia sound
    One of the most commercially successful forms of soul music during the 197-s. Produced by Kenny Gamble and Leon Huff and performed by groups such as the O'Jays and Harold Melvin and the Blue Notes
  23. pop rock
    Upbeat variety of rock music represented by artists such as Elton John, Paul McCartney, Rod Stewart, Chicago, and peter Frampton
  24. soft soul
    Slick variety of rhythm & blues, often with lush orchestral accompaniment: the O'Jays, the Spinners, Al Green, Barry White.
  25. Willie Nelson (b. 1933)
    Born in Texas, Nelson was one of the most influential figurs in teh progressive country movement. Nelson's rise to national fame came in the mid 1970s, through his association with a group of musicians collectiely known as "the Outlaws."
  26. Waylon Jennings (1937-2002)
    The centerpiece of "the Outlaws" and a member of Buddy Holly's rock 'n' roll group, the Crickets. Jennings cultivated an image as a rebel, and in 1972 recorded an album called Ladies Love Ouutlaws.
  27. Townes Van Zandt (1944-97)
    Born in Fort Worth, TX, Van Zandt was a singer-songwriter who became a cult hero of the progressive country movement. Although Van Zandt never placed a record on the country Top 40 charts, his fifteen LPs became underground classics, and his songs were covered by prominent country musicians.
  28. Bob Marley (1945-81)
    The leader of the Wailers and a national hero in his native Jamaica, Marley was reggae's most effective international ambassador. His songs of determination, rebellion, and faith, rooted in the Rastafarian belief system, found a worldwide audience that reached from America to Japan and from Europe to Africa.
  29. The Velvet Underground
    A New York group promoted by the popp art superstar Andy Warhol. Their music was rough-edged and chaotic, extremely loud, and deliberately anticommercial. The lyrics of their songs focused on topics such as sexual deviancy, drug addiction, violence, and social alienation.
  30. The Stooges
    Formed in Ann Arbor, MI, in 1967, the Stooges were the workign-class, motercycle-riding, leather-jacketed ancestors of punk rock. The lead singer of the Stooges, Iggy Stooge (aka Iggy Pop, James Osterburg), was famous for his outrageous stage performances, which included flinging himself into the crowd, cutting himself with beer bottles, and rubbing himself with raw meat.
  31. The New York Dolls
    Formed in NYC in 1971, the dressed in fishnet stockings, bright red listick, cellophane tutus, ostrich feathers, and army boots. The all-male Dolls were an American response to the English glam rock movement.
  32. The Ramones
    The first punk rock band. Formed in 1974 in NYc, the Ramones' high-speed, energetic, and extremely loud sound influenced English punk groups such as the Sex Pistols and the Clash and also became a blueprint for 198s L.A. hardcore bands. Although they projected a street-tough image, all of the band's members were from middle-class families in the NYC borough of Queens.
  33. The Sex Pistols
    The most outrageous-and therefore famous-punk band, formed in 1975 in London. They were the creation of Malcolm McAllen, owner of a London boutique called Sex, which specialized in leather and rubber clothing.
  34. David Byrne (b. 1952)
    Born in Scotland, Byrne was the leader of a new wave band the Talking Heads. H is known for his trembling, high-pitched voice and his eclectic songwriting.
  35. Sly Stone (Sylvester Steward) (b. 1944)
    Born in Dallas, moved to SF with his family in the 1950s. Stone gradually developed a style that reflected his own diverse musical experience, a blend of jazz ,sould musc, SF psychedelia, and the socially engaged lyrics of folk rock.
  36. George clinton (aka. Dr. Funkenstein) (b. 1940)
    The leader of two groups, Parliament and Funkadelic. Clinton's style of funk music included a mixture of compelling polyrhythms, psychedelic guitar solos, jazz-influenced horn arrangements, and R&B vocal harmonies
  37. Kool Herc (Clive Campbell; b. 1955)
    Born in Jamaica, immigrate to NYC at age 12. Herc was one of the pioneering celebrities of hip-hop in the 1970s.
  38. Grandmaster Flash (Joseph Saddler; b. 1958 in Barbados)
    DJ and leader of the furious five, he developed many of the turntable techniques that characterized early hip-hop music.
  39. Africa Bambaataa (Kevin Donovan; b. 1960)
    Pioneering hip-hop DJ from the Bronx; his song "Planet Rock was No. 4R&B and No. 48 pop in 1982.
  40. Sugarhill Gang
    Harlem based crew who recorded the first rap hit, "Rapper's Delight." The record reached #4 on the R&B charts and #36 on the pop charts and introduced hip-hop to millions of people throughout the United States and abroad. The unexpected success of "Rapper's Delight" ushered in a series of million-selling twelve-inch singles by NY rappers.
  41. breakdancing
    acrobatic solo dancing improvised by the young "B-boys" who attended hip-hop dances.
  42. funk music
    Centered on the creation of a strong rhythmic momentum or groove, with the elecric bass and bass drum often playing on all four main beats of the measure, the snare drum and other instruments playing equally strongly on the second and fourth beats (the backbeats), and interlocking ostinato patterns distributed among other instruments, including guitar, keyboards, and horns. Funk brought the focus on dancing back into the pop mainstream.
  43. hip-hop
    hip-hop culture forged by African American and Caribbean American youth in NYC, included distinctive styles of visual art (graffiti), dance (an acrobatic solo style called breakdancing and an energetic couple dance called freak), music, dress, and speech. Hip-hop was at first a local phenomenon, centered in certain neighborhoods in the Bronx, the most economically devastated area of NYC.
  44. outlaw country
    A term used by the record industry to capitalize on the overlap between audiences for rock and  country music. It included Willie Nelson and Waylon Jennings.
  45. progressive country
    In progressive country, performers wrote songs that   were more intellectual and liberal in outlook than their contemporaries and were more concerned with testing the limits of the country music tradition than with scoring hits. The key artists included Willie Nelson, Kris Kristofferson, Tom T. Hall, and Townes Van Zandt.
  46. punk rock
    Rock style that emerged int eh late 1970s. It waas a "back to basics" rebellion against the perceived artifice and pretension of corporate rock music - a stripped down and often purposefully "nonmusical" version of rock music.
  47. rap
    Emerged during the 1970s as one part of the cultural complex of hip-hop. It consisted of rhymed speech accompanied by funk-derived rhythmic grooves.
  48. reggae
    Born in the impoverished shantytowns of Kingston, Jamaica, reggae first became popular in the US in 1973, after the release of the Jamaican film The Harder They Come and is soundtrack album. The heart of reggae music consists of "riddims," interlocking rhythmic patterns played by the guitar, bass, and drums. The guitar often played short, choppy chords on the second and fourth beats of each measure, giving the music a bouncy, up-and-down feeling. The bass-drum combination is the irreducible core of the reggae band, sometimes called the "riddim pair." Political messages were central to reggae music.
  49. sampling
    a digital recording process wherein a sound source is recorded with a microphone, converted to a digital stream of binary numbers, and stored in a computer. The sampled sounds may be retrieved in a number of ways.
  50. scratching
    The sound produced when a record disc is spun backward and forward on a turntable. The distinctive sound of scratching became a important part of the sonic palette of hip-hop music.
  51. MTV (music television)
    Founded in 1981, MTV changed the way the industry operated, rapidly becoing the preferred method for launching a new act or promoting a superstar's latest release
  52. Kenny Rogers
    Veteran of folk pop groups such as the New Christy Minstrels and the First Edition, star of made-for-TV movies. One of the main beneficiaries of country pop's increasing mainstream appeal
  53. Lionel Richie (b. 1949)
    Former member of a vocal R&B group called the Commodores. African American singer and songwriter whose career overarches conventional genre boundaries. Although his gib hits of the 1980s were soul-tinged variants of adult contemporary music, Richie also placed two singles in the country Top 40 during the 1980s.
  54. Eurythmics
    consisted of a core of only 2 musicians--the singer Annie Lennox, and the keyboardist and technical whiz Dave Stewart. Eurythmics first chart appearance in the US came with the release of their second album , Sweet Dreams (are made of this). in 1983
  55. Tina Turner (b. Annie Mae Bullock, 1939)
    made her recording debut in 1960 as a member of the Ike and Tina Turner Revue. In 1983 she was offered a contract by Capitol Records. Her first album, entitled Private Dancer (1984), reached Number 3 on the album charts.
  56. Eddie Van Halen
    Widely recognized as a primary innovator in electric guitar performance. He was the guitarist for the heavy metal group Van Halen and contributed the stinging guitar solo on "Beat It" from Michael Jackson's 1982 album Thriller.
  57. Peter Gabriel
    Achieved celeberity as a member of the art rock group Genesis before embarking on a solo career. Gariel's best-selling single "Sledgehammer" became Number 1 pop an Number 61 R&B in 1986. The award-winning video version of "Sledgehammer" was an eye-catching, witty, and technically innovative work that pushed the frontiers of the medium.
  58. Michael Jackson (1958-2009)
    Began his performance as a member of the Jackson Five. He achieved unprecedented success with his 192 album Thriller, and his elaborately produced music videos helped boos the new medium of music videos. Jackson became the first AA artist to be programmed with any degree of frequency on MTV
  59. Bruce Springsteen (b. 1949)
    Springsteen's music and personal image evoked the rebellious rock 'n' rollers of the 1950s and the socially conscious folk rockers of the 1960s. His songs reflected his working-class origins and sympathies.
  60. Paul Simon
    got his start in the 1960s as a member of the famous folk rock duo Simon and Garfunkel. His album Graceland was a global collaboration recorded in South AFrica, England, and the US. It si the album responsible, more than any other, for introducing a wide audience to the idea of world music.
  61. Madonna (b. Madonna Louise Veronica Ciccone, 1958)
    From the late 1980s through the 1990s, Madonna's popularity was second only to Michael Jackson's. She created controversial songs and music videos, including "Papa don't preach", "Express Yourself", and "Like a Prayer".
  62. Prince (b. Prince Rogers Nelson, 1958)
    Prince is one of the most talented musicians ever to achieve mass commercial success in the field of popular music. He has sold almost forty million recordings. Between 1982 and 92, he placed nine albums in teh Top 10, reaching the top of the charts with 3 of them.
  63. analog recording
    The norm since the introduction of recording in the nineteenth century. Transforms the energy of sound waves into physical imprints (as in pre-1925 acoustic recordings) or intoelectronic  waveforms that closely follow  (and can be used to reproduce) the shape of the sound waves themselves.
  64. digital recording
    Samples the sound waves and breaks them down into a stream of numbers (0/1). A device called an analog-to-digital converter does the conversion. To play back the music, the stream of numbers is converted back to an analog wave by a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The analog wave produced by the DAC is amplified and fed to speakers to produce the sound.
  65. drum machines
    Drum machines such as the Roland TR8 808 adn the Linn LM-1 -- almost ubiquitous on the 1980s dance music and rap recordings --rely on "drum pads" which performers strike and activate, triggering the production of sampled sounds.
  66. Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)
    Device that standardized digital technologies, enabling devices produced by different manufacturers to "communicate" with one another.
  67. sequencer
    Device that records musical data rather than musical sound and enables the creation of repeated sound sequences (loops), the manipulation of rhythmic grooves, and the transmission of recorded data from one program or device to another.
  68. Synthesizer
    Device that enables musicians to create or "synthesize" musical sounds. Began to appear on rock records during the early 1970s.
  69. Run-DMC
    rio consisting of the MCS Run and DMC and the DJ Jam Master Jay. Perhaps the most influential act in the history of rap music, they established a hard-edged, rock-tinged style that shaped the sound and the sensibility of the later rap music. Their raps were literate and rhythmically skilled, with Run and DMC together weaving their phrases together and sometims even completing the last few words of each other's lines.
  70. Beastie Boys
    The first commercially successful whit act in hip-hop. Their early recordings represent a fusion of the youth-oriented rebelliousness of hardcore punk rock--the style they began playing in 1981--with the sensibility and techniques of hip-hop.
  71. Def Jam
    co-founded in 1984 by the hip-hop promoter Russell Simmons adn the musician producer Rick Rubin. During the 1980s, Def Jam corss promoted a new generation of artists, expanding and diversifying the national audience for hip-hop, and in 1986 became the first rap-oriented independent label to sign a distribution deal with one of the "Big Five" record companies, Columbia Records.
  72. Public Enemy
    Founded in 1982, public Enemy was organized around a core set of members who met as college students, drawn together by their interest in hip-hop culture and political activism. The group included the standard hip-hop configuration of two MCs--Chuck D and Flavor Flav--plus a DJ --Terminator X. Ti was augmented by a "minister of Information" and by the Security of the First World, a cohort of dancers who dressed in paramilitary uniforms, carried Uzi submachine guns and performed marital arts inspired choreography.
  73. M.C. Hammer
    Rapper from Oakland, CA; hit the chars in 1990 with Please Hammer Don't Hurt 'Em which held the no. 1 position for 21 weeks and sold over ten million copies, becoming he bestselling rap album of all time
  74. VAnilla ICe
    Ice's first album, To the extreme, monopolized the #1 positton for 16 weeks in early 1991, selling 7 million copies. When it ws discovered that VAn Winkle, raised in reasonably comfortable circumstances in a middle-class neighborhood, had essentially invented a gangster persona for himself, many fans turned their backs on him.
  75. Ice-T
    IN 1987, he recorded the theme song for Colors, DEnnis Hopper's violent film against gang-versus police warfare in South Central LA. Both the film and Ice-T's raps reflected ongoing changes in California's urban communities, including a decline in industrial production, rising rates of joblessness, the coninuing effects of crack cocaine, and a concomitant growth of drug related gang violence.
  76. NWA (Niggaz with attitude)
    Pioneered West Coast gangsta rap with the release of the album Straight Outta Compton. Their recordings expressed the gangsta lifestyle, saturated with images of sex and violence. The nucleus  of the group was formed in 1986, when O'shea "Ice Cube" JAckson, the product of a middle-class home in South Central LA met Andre Dr. Dre Young a sometime member of a local funk group called the World Class Wreckin' Cru. They teamed up with Eric "Eazy-E" Wright a former drug dealer and the three began working together as NWA, eventually adding DJ Yella and MC Ren to the group.
  77. Andre (Dr. Dre) Young
    The most influential and economically successful member of NWA. He founded an independent record label (Death Row/ Interscope), cultivated a number of younger rappers and continued to develop a distinctive hip-hop production style,christened  "G-Funk" in homage to the P-funk style developed in the 1970s by George Clinton
  78. Snoop Doggy Dog (Calvin Broadus)
    Gangsta rapper born in Long Beach, CA he was a protege of Andre "Dr. Dre" Young and collaborated on Dr. DRe's 1992 album The Chronic. Snoop's soft drawl and laid-back-but-lethal gangster persona were featured on Doggystyle, which debuted at the top of the album charts in 1993.
  79. Sean "PUffy" Combs (aka Puff Daddy, P. Diddy)
    CEO of NY independent label Bad Boy Records
  80. Tupac (2pac) Shakur
    Tragic victim of conflicts between East and West Coast factions within the hip-hop business. He was an up-and-coming star with LA-based Death Row Records when he was shot and killed in LV in 1996
  81. The Notorious B.I.G. (Christopher Wallace, aka Biggie Smalls)
    Worked with producer and rapper P.Diddy. he was shot to death in LA in 1997
  82. Queen Latifah (Dana Elaine Owens, b. 1970)
    The most important woman in the history of hip-hop n terms of both her commercial success and her effectiveness in establishing a feminist beachhead on the male-dominated field of rap music.
  83. Jello Baifra (Eric Boucher)
    The lead singer of the Dead Kennedys. Wrote songs with titles like "Holiday in Cambodia," California uber Alles, " "Kill the poor, and "Chemical Warfare"
  84. Kurt Cobain
    Singer and guitarist who founded the alternative rock band Nirvana. His recordings broke through to the commercial mainstream and popularized grunge rock. He shot himself in SEattle in 1994.
  85. Krist Novoselic
    Bassist for the Seattle-based alternative rock trio Nirvana
  86. Green River
    formed in 1983, the band is often singled out as an originator of the SEattle sound." Their 1988 album REhab Doll, released on Sub Pop, helped popularize Grunge Rock.
  87. Ani DiFranco
    A folk singer dressed in punk rock clothing, DiFranco has spent her career resisting the lure of the corporate music business, releasing an album and playing upward of 2 hundred live dates every year and building up a successful independent record label (Righteous Babe Records) and a substantial grassroots following
  88. Lauryn Hill
    Hip-hop artist whose work is self-conscious alternative to the violence and sexism in the work of rap stars such as Dr. Dre, Biggie Smalls, and 2Pac. Her commitment to female empowerment builds on the ground-breaking example of Queen Latifah, but Hill raps and sings in her own distinctive voice.
  89. k.d. lang
    has always occupied a marginal position in the conservative   world of country music. She began her career in 1982 as a Pasty Cline imitator, going so far as to christen her band the Reclines. lang never sat quite right with the Nashville establishment, who found her campy outfits (rhinestone suits and cate-eye glasses) and somewhat androgynous image off-putting
  90. alternative music
    The term "alternative"--like the broadly equivalent terms "underground" and "independent"--is used across a wide range of popular genres, including rock, rap, adult contemporary, dance, folk, and country music. It is used to describe music that challenges the the status quo; anticommercial, and antimainstream, it is though by its supporters to the local as opposed to corporate, homemade as opposed to mass produced, and genuine as opposed to artificial. The music industry's use of   "alternative" is bound up with the need of the music business to identify and exploit new trends, styles and audiences.
  91. alternative rock
    Marketing category that emerged around 1990; it is most often used to describe bands like REM, Sonic Youth, the Dead Kennedyss, and Nirvana
  92. gangsta rap
    Variant of hip-hop music; its emergence was heralded nationwide by the release of the album Straight Outta Compton by NWA. It included artists such as Snoop Doggy Dogg, 2Pac and Biggie Smalls.
  93. grunge rock
    Regional style of alternative rock from SEattle that blended heavy metal guitar textures with hardcore punk. Bands from SEattle included Green River, Mudhoney, Pearl Jam, Nirvana, and Soundgarden
  94. hard core
    Extreme variation of punk, pioneeered durign the early 198-s by bands in SF (the Dead Kennedys) and LA (the Germs, Black Flag, X, and the Circle Jerks)
  95. house music
    Named after the Warehouse, a popular gay dance club in Chicago, it was a style of techno dance music. Many house recordings were purely instrumental, with elements of European synth-pop, Latin soul, reggae, rap, and jazz grafted over an insistent dance beat. By the mid-1980s, house music scenes had emerged in NY and London .and in the late 1980s, the genre made its first appearances on the pop charts, under the guise of artists such as M/A/R/R/S and Madonna.
  96. old school New York hip-hop
    Describes the earliest styles of hip-hop that came out of NYC in the 1970s and 1980s.
  97. rave
    one of the main venues for techno. Semipublic event modeled partly on the be-ins of the 1960s counterculture
  98. techno
    Style of electronic dance music that originated in the Detroit area during the 1980s.
  99. thrash
    Style that blended the fast tempos and rebellious attitude of hardcore with the technical virtuosity of heavy metal guitar playing
  100. West Coast rap
    Style of rap that originated in CA. it differed from "old schoold" New York hip-hop in a number of regards. The edgy, rapid-fire delivery of Melle Mel and RunDMC remained influential but was augmented by smoother, more laid-back style of rapping. The dialects of Southern California rappers also contributed to the distinctive flavor of West Coast rap.And if the verbal delivery of West Coast rap was sometimes cooler, the content of the MCs' recitations themselves became angrier, darker, and more menacing.
  101. Pro-Tools
    Music software program designe dto run on PCs. This software enabled recording engineers and musicians to gain even more control over every parameter of musical sound, including but not only pitch and tempo but also the quality of a singer's voice or an instrumentalist's timbrel
  102. Clear Channel
    Publicly traded corporation that owns more than 1200 radio stations, 39 tTV stations, 100k billboards, and 100 live performance venues, ranging from huge ampitheaters to dance clubs, enabling them to present more than 70% of all live events nationwide
  103. Napster
    internet based software program that enabled computer users to share and swap files, specifically music, through a centralized file server. A federal court injunction forced Napster to shut down in February 2001
  104. iPod
    Introduced in 2001 by Apple Computer, an MP3 player that can store up to 1000 CD-quality songs on its internal hard drive. The iPod and other MP3 players enable listeners to build unique libraries of music reflecting their personal tastes ("playlists").
  105. Recording industry association of america (RIAA)
    Trade association whose member companies--Universal, Sony, Warner Brothers, Arista, Atlantic, BMG, RCA, Capitol, Electra, Interscope, and Sire Records--control the sale and distribution of approximately 90% of the offline music in the US
  106. "peer-to-peer" (p2p)
    Computer file sharing networks in which users share files containing audio, video, data or anything in digital format
  107. MP3
    Variant of MPEG, MP3 enables sound files to be compressed to as little as 1/12th of their original size

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