microbiology

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Author:
mattnjaneal
ID:
223308
Filename:
microbiology
Updated:
2013-06-11 14:27:51
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blood lymphatics
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chapter 20
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  1. bacterial diseases of the blood and lymphatics
    • endocarditis
    • septicemia
    • tularemia
    • brucellosis
    • bubonic plague
    • lyme disease
  2. viral infections of the blood and lymphatics
    • infectious mononucleosis
    • ebola hemorrhagic fever
    • dengue fever
    • acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  3. protozoal infections of the blood and lymphatics
    • malaria
    • toxoplasmosis
  4. helminthis infections of the blood and lymphatics
    • schistosomiasis
    • filariasis
  5. endocarditis
    inflammation of endocardium (lining); includes valve
  6. acute endocarditis
    cause: staph aureus, strep pneumoniae, strep pyogenes, neisseria gonorrhoeae
  7. subacute endocarditis
    preceded by valve abnormality or congenital heart defect that makes patient prone to colonization
  8. symptoms of endocarditis
    fever, anemia, abnormal heart beat, may mimic heart attack, petechiae septicemia
  9. septicemia
    Micro organisms are multiplying in blood
  10. cause of septicemia
    many types of MO's
  11. transmission of septicemia
    infection that spreads; IV or surgery
  12. symptoms of septicemia
    fever, chills, GI symptoms, change respiration rate, low BP
  13. What if the septicemia is a gram - infection?
    it could lead to endotoxic shock due to LPS
  14. treatment for septicemia
    dependent on type of micro organism
  15. turlaremia
    rabbit fever
  16. What is the cause of turlaremia?
    • francisella tularensis
    • gram - coccobacillus
    • common in squirrels, rabbits, deer, and muskrats
    • zoonosis
  17. transmission for turlaremia?
    contact broken skin or mucous membranes when handling infected wildlife or tick bite
  18. incubation for tularemia?
    3 day to several weeks
  19. symptoms for tularemia?
    • ulcer at the point of entry
    • infection spreads to lymph nodes (enlarged and tender)
    • most cases self limiting
  20. treatment and vaccine for tularemia?
    • antibiotics
    • live attenuated vaccine
  21. Brucellosis
    Bang's disease or undullant fever
  22. cause of brucellosis?
    • brucella abortus
    • brucella suisis
    • intracellular parasite of macrophage
    • zoonosis
  23. transmission of brucellosis
    • enter mucous membrane, break in skin or ingestion of infected
    • unpasteurized milk
    • animals passed through milk or transplacental (cause abortion)
  24. symptoms of brucellosis?
    • undulant (wave like) fever (LPS)
    • general malaise, enlarged lymph nodes, lesions on liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidneys, uterus
    • all blood rich organs
    • self limiting in about 2 months
  25. treatment for brucellosis?
    tetracycline/doxycycline
  26. vaccine for brucellosis?
    given to livestock and pets
  27. bubonic plague
    black death or pestilence
  28. cause of bubonic plague
    • yersiniapestis
    • gram - bacillus
    • bipolar stain
    • pathogen has capsule and plasminogen activator
    • zoonosis
  29. transmission of bubonic plague
    • human bitten by a rat flea (vector)
    • fleas has blocked esophagus so it regurgitates meal
  30. incubation of bubonic plague
    • 2-8 days
    • bacteria enter lymph
    • buboes (enlarged lymph nodes)
  31. symptoms of bubonic plague?
    • high fever, buboes, skin hemorrhaging (blue/black color to skin), septicemic plague (in blood)
    • travels to lungs = pnemonic plague (spreads with resp. droplets)
    • death in 2-4 days
  32. treatment for bubonic plague?
    tetracycline
  33. cause for lyme disease?
    • borrelia burgdorferi
    • spirochete
  34. vector for lyme disease?
    • deer tick (ixodes scapularis)
    • nymph like to feed on humans
    • adult ticks reproduce in deer
  35. transmission of lyme disease?
    an infected tick bite
  36. incubation for lyme disease?
    3-32 days
  37. symptoms for lyme disease?
    • 3 stages
    • 1) erythema migrans - bulls eye rash at bite site; wil disappear; headache, stiffness, muscle aches, and fatigue
    • 2) meningitis or myocardial damage (several weeks after rash)
    • 3) chronic arthritis - especially knees
  38. treatment for lyme disease?
    doxycycline
  39. cause of infectious mononucleosis?
    • epstein barr virus (EBV)
    • herpes viridae
    • DNA
  40. transmission of mono?
    saliva
  41. incubation of mono?
    1-2 months
  42. symptoms for mono?
    • fatigue, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, fever, enlarged spleens, and liver
    • common to see secondary infection like strep throat
  43. treatment for mono?
    none administered
  44. cause for ebola hemorrhagic fever
    • ebola virus - 90% mortality
    • RNA
    • filoviridae - sheperds crook or fishhook end to them
    • marburg virus - 50-60% mortality
  45. transmission of ebola?
    direct contact with infected blood or fluids
  46. incubation for ebola?
    2-21 days
  47. symptoms for ebola?
    • early:  headache, sore throat, vomiting, fatigue
    • late:  (may be within 24hrs) bleeding from every orifice, skin rash (hemorrhage), seizures, delirium, coma, and death
  48. treatment for ebola?
    • no treatment
    • high mortality rate
  49. dengue fever
    breakbone fever
  50. cause of dengue fever
    • dengue virus type 1,2,3,4
    • flaviviradae
    • tropical climates
  51. vector/transmission for dengue fever?
    mosquito bite
  52. incubation for dengue fever?
    2-7 days
  53. symptoms for dengue fever?
    • high fever, headache, rash, muscle pains, pains in limbs
    • recover in 1 week
  54. treatment dengue fever
    supportive care
  55. acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
    cause
    • human immunodeficiency virus type I
    • retroviridae
    • RNA virus w/ reverse transcriptase
  56. transmission of Aids
    • sexual transmission
    • blood borne pathogen
    • mother can pass to fetus or nursing infant
  57. incubation for AIDS?
    6 days - 6 weeks
  58. AIDS pathology
    • infects dendritic cells (phagocytic)
    • CD4 T Helper
    • lymphocytes, intestinal epithelim and brain cells
  59. AIDS symptoms
    • acute infection- many asymptomatic or mild, include fever, headache, sore throat, muscle aches, and enlarged lymph nodes
    • asymptomatic period - individual infections (HIV)
    • immunodeficiency - CD4 < 200 then you have AIDS; prior to that you have HIV
    • T Helper cells not enough to fight infections
  60. AIDS related complex (ARC)
    fever weight loss, fatigue, and diarrhea, lymphadenophathy, opportunistic infections
  61. treatment for AIDS
    • slow viral replication - not a cure
    • HAART - highly active anti retroviral therapy
    • 2 reverse transcriptase and one protease inhibitors
  62. cause of malaria?
    plasmodium species
  63. vector for malaria
    mosquito, biological
  64. treatment for malaria
    • chloroquine, primaquine
    • prophylaxis use if traveling in an area with malaria
  65. toxoplasmosis cause
    toxoplasma gondii
  66. transmission of toxoplasmosis
    • cat feces in a litter box, garden, or a sand box
    • ingestion of under cooked infected meats (cysts)
  67. toxoplasmosis incubation
    • 10-23 days after ingesting meat
    • 5-20 days after ingesting cat feces (oocytes)
  68. toxoplasmosis symptoms
    • most adults are asymptomatic
    • pregnant woman in the first trimester infection can cause abortion or damage to embryo; later it can cause congenital defects including blindness, deafness, or MR
  69. toxoplasmosis treatment
    antibiotics
  70. filariasis
    elephantiasis
  71. filariasis cause
    • wurcheria bancrafti (south america)
    • brugia malayi (asia)
  72. filariasis transmission
    vector - bite of infected mosquito introduces larva to skin
  73. filariasis pathology
    • larvae enter lymph
    • larvae mature to adult worms - can take 9-12 months
    • mate - produce microfilaria
  74. filariasis symptoms
    • fever
    • chills
    • blocked lymphatics
    • enlarged limbs
  75. filariasis treatment
    anti helminthic drugs

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