Card Set Information
bacterial diseases of the blood and lymphatics
viral infections of the blood and lymphatics
ebola hemorrhagic fever
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
protozoal infections of the blood and lymphatics
helminthis infections of the blood and lymphatics
inflammation of endocardium (lining); includes valve
cause: staph aureus, strep pneumoniae, strep pyogenes, neisseria gonorrhoeae
preceded by valve abnormality or congenital heart defect that makes patient prone to colonization
symptoms of endocarditis
fever, anemia, abnormal heart beat, may mimic heart attack, petechiae septicemia
Micro organisms are multiplying in blood
cause of septicemia
many types of MO's
transmission of septicemia
infection that spreads; IV or surgery
symptoms of septicemia
fever, chills, GI symptoms, change respiration rate, low BP
What if the septicemia is a gram - infection?
it could lead to endotoxic shock due to LPS
treatment for septicemia
dependent on type of micro organism
What is the cause of turlaremia?
gram - coccobacillus
common in squirrels, rabbits, deer, and muskrats
transmission for turlaremia?
contact broken skin or mucous membranes when handling infected wildlife or tick bite
incubation for tularemia?
3 day to several weeks
symptoms for tularemia?
ulcer at the point of entry
infection spreads to lymph nodes (enlarged and tender)
most cases self limiting
treatment and vaccine for tularemia?
live attenuated vaccine
Bang's disease or undullant fever
cause of brucellosis?
intracellular parasite of macrophage
transmission of brucellosis
enter mucous membrane, break in skin or ingestion of infected
animals passed through milk or transplacental (cause abortion)
symptoms of brucellosis?
undulant (wave like) fever (LPS)
general malaise, enlarged lymph nodes, lesions on liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidneys, uterus
all blood rich organs
self limiting in about 2 months
treatment for brucellosis?
vaccine for brucellosis?
given to livestock and pets
black death or pestilence
cause of bubonic plague
gram - bacillus
pathogen has capsule and plasminogen activator
transmission of bubonic plague
human bitten by a rat flea (vector)
fleas has blocked esophagus so it regurgitates meal
incubation of bubonic plague
bacteria enter lymph
buboes (enlarged lymph nodes)
symptoms of bubonic plague?
high fever, buboes, skin hemorrhaging (blue/black color to skin), septicemic plague (in blood)
travels to lungs = pnemonic plague (spreads with resp. droplets)
death in 2-4 days
treatment for bubonic plague?
cause for lyme disease?
vector for lyme disease?
deer tick (ixodes scapularis)
nymph like to feed on humans
adult ticks reproduce in deer
transmission of lyme disease?
an infected tick bite
incubation for lyme disease?
symptoms for lyme disease?
1) erythema migrans - bulls eye rash at bite site; wil disappear; headache, stiffness, muscle aches, and fatigue
2) meningitis or myocardial damage (several weeks after rash)
3) chronic arthritis - especially knees
treatment for lyme disease?
cause of infectious mononucleosis?
epstein barr virus (EBV)
transmission of mono?
incubation of mono?
symptoms for mono?
fatigue, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, fever, enlarged spleens, and liver
common to see secondary infection like strep throat
treatment for mono?
cause for ebola hemorrhagic fever
ebola virus - 90% mortality
filoviridae - sheperds crook or fishhook end to them
marburg virus - 50-60% mortality
transmission of ebola?
direct contact with infected blood or fluids
incubation for ebola?
symptoms for ebola?
early: headache, sore throat, vomiting, fatigue
late: (may be within 24hrs) bleeding from every orifice, skin rash (hemorrhage), seizures, delirium, coma, and death
treatment for ebola?
high mortality rate
cause of dengue fever
dengue virus type 1,2,3,4
vector/transmission for dengue fever?
incubation for dengue fever?
symptoms for dengue fever?
high fever, headache, rash, muscle pains, pains in limbs
recover in 1 week
treatment dengue fever
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
human immunodeficiency virus type I
RNA virus w/ reverse transcriptase
transmission of Aids
blood borne pathogen
mother can pass to fetus or nursing infant
incubation for AIDS?
6 days - 6 weeks
infects dendritic cells (phagocytic)
CD4 T Helper
lymphocytes, intestinal epithelim and brain cells
acute infection- many asymptomatic or mild, include fever, headache, sore throat, muscle aches, and enlarged lymph nodes
asymptomatic period - individual infections (HIV)
immunodeficiency - CD4 < 200 then you have AIDS; prior to that you have HIV
T Helper cells not enough to fight infections
AIDS related complex (ARC)
fever weight loss, fatigue, and diarrhea, lymphadenophathy, opportunistic infections
treatment for AIDS
slow viral replication - not a cure
HAART - highly active anti retroviral therapy
2 reverse transcriptase and one protease inhibitors
cause of malaria?
vector for malaria
treatment for malaria
prophylaxis use if traveling in an area with malaria
transmission of toxoplasmosis
cat feces in a litter box, garden, or a sand box
ingestion of under cooked infected meats (cysts)
10-23 days after ingesting meat
5-20 days after ingesting cat feces (oocytes)
most adults are asymptomatic
pregnant woman in the first trimester infection can cause abortion or damage to embryo; later it can cause congenital defects including blindness, deafness, or MR
wurcheria bancrafti (south america)
brugia malayi (asia)
vector - bite of infected mosquito introduces larva to skin
larvae enter lymph
larvae mature to adult worms - can take 9-12 months
mate - produce microfilaria
anti helminthic drugs