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air food, and liquid all pass thru the:
the two passages separate at the:
food and liquid pass backward into the:
air passes forward thru the:
larynx and then into the trachea
what are the important structures that act as separators in the throat for the passage of air and food?
These are the Soft Pallet above and the Epiglottis and Vocal Cords below
The boney opening to the Nasal Cavities is referred to as the:
- Piriform Aperture
- with the Nasal Septum dividing the Two Nasal Cavities
The roof of each nasal cavity is formed by the:
Cribriform Plate and is narrow
The bilateral, lateral walls in the nasal cavity are marked by the projections called
Conchae (or turbinates)
what bones make up the
- superior and middle: part of the ethmoid bone
- inferior: part of the maxillary bone
The three turbinates partly divide the Nasal Cavity into?
put the turbinates in order from largest to smallest and give their function?
- inferior (the largest): can be as long as the index finger, and are responsible for the majority of airflow direction, humidification, heating, and filtering of air inhaled through the nose.
- middle (smaller): usually as long as the pinky finger. They project downwards over the openings of the maxillary and ethmoid sinuses, and act as buffers to protect the sinuses from coming in direct contact with pressurized nasal airflow. Most inhaled airflow travels between the inferior turbinate and the middle turbinate.
- superior (smallest): serve to protect the olfactory bulb
Turbinates are composed of:
pseudo-stratified columnar ciliated respiratory epithelium with a thick, vascular and erectile glandular tissue layer
the turbinates, together, are responsible for:
forcing inhaled air to flow in a steady, regular pattern around the largest possible surface of cilia and climate controlling tissue.
a facial bone on the centerline of the nose that forms part of the nasal cavity:
the lateral wall is formed partly by:
Further back, where the nasal cavity becomes the nasopharynx, the lateral wall is formed by:
- maxilla, ethmoid bone, & the perpendicular part of the palatine bone
- medial pterygoid plate
largest bones that surround the nasal cavity:
they are hollow to a greater or lesser extent.
the hollow spaces in these bones contain the: and is filled with what?
what do they communicate with?
- The Frontal Bone
- The Maxilla
- The Sphenoid Bone and
- The Ethmoid Bone
- contain: Paranasal sinuses
- filled with air
- communicate with nasal cavity
The Medial Wall of the Maxillary Sinus is also the:
lateral wall of the nasal cavity
what lies above, behind, in front, and below the sphenoid sinus?
- Above: Floor of the Anterior Cranial Fossa and Sella Turcica
- Behind: Basilar Part of the Occipital Bone
- In front: the High Part of the Nasal Cavity
- Below: the Roof of the Nasopharynx
The Ethmoid Air Cells are collectively referred to as:
the Ethmoid Sinus which extend all the way posteriorly along the Medial Wall of the Orbit
ethmoid air cells lie btwn:
the Medial Wall of the Orbit and the Lateral Wall of the Upper Part of the Nasal Cavity
what forms a large part of the Boney Nasal Septum?
The upward projection is the beginning of the:
- perpendicular plate
- Crista Galli
what is on either side of the cribriform plates?
what is the most lateral part of the ethmoid bone and it is paper thin layer?
what does it form?
- Lamina Papyracea
- forms part of the medial wall of the orbit
The Frontal and Maxillary Sinuses empty into:
the Nasal Cavity in the area beneath the Middle Turbinate
the frontal and the maxillary sinus are separated by?
The Frontal Sinus drains into the:
Nasal Cavity via the Frontonasal Duct
The Frontal and Maxillary Sinus open into the Nasal Cavity “Not Directly” but instead through a narrow side chamber called:
The Sphenoid Sinus opens into the Nasal Cavity “Above and Behind” the
name the openings for the ethmoid air cells into the nasal cavity:
- “Behind the Middle Turbinate”
- “Below the Middle Turbinate”
The Nasolacrimal Duct is short and passes downwards and backwards and it opens:
"Beneath” the Inferior Turbinate
The Sphenopalantine foramen is the:
the “inner end of a short tunnel” for Blood Vessels and Nerves that pass to the Nose and Pallet
posterior opening for the nasal cavity is called:
choana (posterior nasis)
the lateral wall is formed by the:
medial pterygoid plate
the medial pterygoid plate ends below as the:
The Roof of the Pharynx is formed by the:
- the “Underside of the Sphenoid Bone and Basilar Portion of the Occiput”
- which slopes downward towards the Foramen Magnum
The Anterior Arch of the Atlas and Odontoid Process of the Axis lie:
Posterior to the Nasopharynx