Psyc 357 Final

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Psyc 357 Final
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  1. Analytical psychology
    A set of assumptions connected by a string of logic. Jung provided two sources of information to support this hypotheses. The first one was composed of fairy tales, myths, and legends. The other was his clinical practice (dream analysis).
  2. Archetypes
    Images of the primordial (elemental, ancient) character.
  3. Analysant
    Analyst of dreams.
  4. Castration anxiety
    A fear of both literal and figurative emasculation, Freud believed that as the child becomes aware of the physical differences between males and females, he assumes that the female’s penis has been removed and that his father will also castrate him as a punishment for desiring his mother.
  5. Collective unconscious
    A part of the unconcious mind, expressed in humanity and all life forms with nervous systems, and describes how the structure of the psyche autonomously organizes experience. Collects and organizes those personal experiences in a similar way with each member of particular species.
  6. Compensation
    A type of defense mechanism used to protect the ego (from anxiety) in which people overachieve in on area to compensate for failures in others.
  7. Ego
    Making compromises between the id, and the environment. This is the reality principal.
  8. Free associations
    Possible underlying meanings of a dream, patients speak for themselves, rather than repeating the ideas of the analyst.
  9. Association method
    Jung presented his clients with specific words, for which they called out anything that came to their mind spontaneously. The analyst then would scrutinize these associations and look for (a) a particular pattern of responses or certain words appearing repetitively, (b) the effort with which the patient gives these associations, and (c) the emotions and behavior accompanying associations such as nervous laughter, fidgeting, or other reactions.
  10. Id
    The component of the psyche that contains inborn biological drives. Seeks immediate gratification on impulses. Operates exclusively to the pleasure principal.
  11. Individuation
    the process of fulfilling an individual’s potential by integrating opposites into a harmonious whole, by getting away from the aimlessness of life.
  12. Oedipus complex
    The key postulation of psychoanalysis. The term meaning that boys are attached to their moms, and the girls to their dads, competing against each other for the affection of their parents.
  13. Organ inferiority
    term to describe how people who found themselves born with certain psychical defects develop feelings of inferiority and start taking actions to compensate for their weaknesses.
  14. Psychoanalysis
    Understanding resistances by using the free associations method and focusing on catharsis.
  15. Animus
    an inner masculine part of the female personality in the analytic psychology of C.G. Jung.
  16. Social interest
    the desire to adapt positively to the perceived social environment, based on three social ties: occupation, society, and love.
  17. Superego
    The moral guide with unconscious features. Tells us what we should and shouldn’t do.
  18. Transferences
    A phenomenon characterized by unconscious redirection of feelings from one person to another, both participants typically experience a variety of opposites.
  19. Unconscious (adjective)
    a reservoir of repressed guilty wishes and indecent thoughts. Similar to acts of denial.
  20. Unconscious (noun)
    A moral guardian which develops under the pressure of social norms.
  21. Wish fulfillment
    A symbolic attempt to realize an unfulfilled desire.
  22. Force field analysis
    A framework for looking at the factors or forces influencing an individuals behavior in a particular situation.
  23. Gestalt therapy
    focuses more on the process of our experience than on its content, focuses on a here-and-now method embracing immediate experiences rather than past recollections of other therapeutic methods. Form of psychotherapy that emphasizes personal responsibility, and that focuses upon the individual's experience in the present moment, the therapist-client relationship, the environmental and social contexts of a person's life, and the self-regulating adjustments people make as a result of their overall situation.
  24. Hodological space
    A finitely structured space.
  25. Insight
    The ability of seeing into a situation, understanding it’s “inner” nature; a sudden, intuitive perception or grasping of useful relations in a given situation. It introduced an innovative model of learning.
  26. Isomorphism
    The phenomena that people experience and the underlying processes in the brain are correlated.
  27. Leadership style
    The predominant type of communications established by the group leader.
  28. Phi-phenomenon
    The observable fact of pure motion when two images are projected in succession.
  29. Reversible figures
    An ambiguous two-dimensional drawing that represents a three-dimensional object in such a way that is can be seen from two different perspectives.
  30. Topology
    The complex study of the properties of geometric figures and spaces in terms of their connectedness, continuity, and orientation; helps to describe and individual’s actions, intensions, arising conflicts, and puzzling dilemmas.
  31. Army Alpha and Army Beta
    Army Alpha: literate groups and the Army Beta:  those who were illiterate
  32. Genetic epistemology
    Attempts to explain knowledge (scientific knowledge in particular) from the standpoint of knowledge’s history.
  33. Hawthorne effect
    Refers to a positive effect of properly organized work relationships on workers’ productivity and satisfaction.
  34. Hawthorne experiment
    A series of experiments initially designed to investigate the effects of several improved working conditions on factory productivity.
  35. Iowa Child Welfare Station
    founded in 1917 as a research institution to study the behavior and skills of ordinary children under everyday conditions. Known for its contribution to the nature-nurture  debate.
  36. Mental hygiene
    the science of promoting mental health and preventing mental illness through the application of psychiatry and psychology. Known today as “mental health”
  37. Assimilation and accommodation
    the two sides of the process of adaption and learning. They are both fundamentally biological processes and work in tandem helping individuals in advancing their understanding of the world. Assimilation- adopting operations with new objects into old mind patterns. Accommodation- modifying one’s mental structures to fit the new demands of the environment.
  38. Zone of proximal  Development
    understood as the difference between a child’s learning progress with help or guidance and the child’s learning achievement without help or guidance.
  39. Purposive or operational behaviorism
    Tolman’s believed that when rats or cats push buttons or run through a maze, their actions are not just mechanical responses to some stimuli, but there is something in an animal’s behavior that maintains its action, its movement toward a goal. This something is a drive
  40. Schedules of reinforcement
    Conditions involving different rates and times of reinforcement
  41. Themas
    stories or interpretations projecting fantasy imagery onto an objective stimulus.
  42. Cognitive map
    This term stands for internal processing by which individuals code, store, recall and decode information about particular elements.
  43. Molar responses
    To respond to a situation, both humans and animals have to interpret it. The response reaction takes time because the response requires interpretation. The concept of “interpretation” signaled a departure from a traditional behaviorism that generally ignored the idea the behavior should have a goal or purpose.
  44. Ego psychology
    Focusing on facts related to the ego’s interaction with its social environment. Allowed psychoanalysts to claim more legitimacy in the mainstream university psychology.
  45. Operant conditioning
    Rewards and punishments follow certain actions. The more desirable the outcome is, the more they will do an action.
  46. Humanistic psychology
    a theoretical and practical field that concerns primarily the human dimension in psychology and calls for renewed efforts to study the phenomena that distinguish human beings- love happiness, self-growth.
  47. Artificial intelligence
    a computer or machine that has been created to "think" like a human. The idea behind it is that human reasoning can be understood and defined based on input (your experiences) and output(your actions)
  48. Cognitive neuroscience
    the scientific study of biological substrates underlying cognition, with a specific focus on the neural substrates of mental processes. It addresses the questions of how psychological/cognitive functions are produced by the brain.
  49. Cognitive psychology
    scientific study of human mental processes and their role in thinking, emotions and behavior. It's main concern is how we, as individuals process information.
  50. Existential psychology
    A branch on the tree of existential philosophy, a discipline focusing primarily on the thinking, willing, and independent individual.
  51. Existential therapy
    The healing method based on the assumption that we, as human beings, make our own choices and should assume full responsibility for the outcomes of our behavior and our own feelings.
  52. Positive psychology
    their main focus of their work was not on problems or weakness but mostly on sources of growth and improvement.
  53. Self-actualization
    governed by the search of “being values” (B-Values); 1) an accurate perception of reality, (2) a continued freshness of appreciation and openness to experience, (3) spontaneity and simplicity, (4) a strong ethical awareness, (5) a philosophical (rather than hostile) sense of humor, (6) a need for privacy, (7) periodic mystical (“peak”) experiences, (8) democratic leadership traits ), (9) deep interpersonal relations, (10) autonomy and independence, (11) creativeness, (12) a problem-centered (rather than self-centered) orientation, (13) a resistance to enculturation, and (14) an acceptance of self, others, and nature.
  54. T.O.T.E
    “test-operate-test-exit”, The organization of behavior as well as any mental process
  55. The terms scientific perplexity and creative perplexity of the early 20th century refer
    to what?
    The social and scientific landscape which was the general mode of thinking that the world is a new era of progress and innovation.
  56. What was the most prominent inaugural case that launched the whole theory of
    psychoanalysis?
    The case of “Anna O”, written in the book Studies on Hysteria.
  57. According to Freud  the therapist takes what three steps?
    1) Collecting the reported reflections 2) Analyzing them 3) Interpreting them to the patient.
  58. What was the seduction hypothesis?
    The enticement, without force or threat, for another person into sexual relationships. (which was later called sexual abuse, not enticement)
  59. What are degeneration, neurosis, and genius in Adler’s theory?
    The three outcomes of individual’s compensatory efforts. Degeneration- the attempted compensation is unsuccessful. Neurosis- This happens when an individual is bouncing back from success to failure. Genius- Compensation brings success and delivers a new life free from pain of inferiority.
  60. The book, Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, released in 1905, argues that a major source of psychological illness are cultural restrictions imposed on?
    Sexual behavior
  61. Freud abandoned his seduction hypothesis for two reasons
    Insufficient evidence and the pressure of academic establishment.
  62. What is the latent content of a dream?
    The hidden meaning due to it’s traumatic or shameful nature.
  63. What are The Stages of Phobia Progress ?
    A child is attracted to his mother as source of comfort and saftey. Child has aggressive wished against father and sister because their seen as obstacles of his affection for his mother. Child has aggressive wishes and affection towards mother (inappropriate), and represses the wishes into unconscious. The incest wished manifest themselves in the form of a phobia and other anxieties.
  64. Know Jung’s Archetypes
    Archetypes are images of the primordial character. They manifest in 3 universal ways: Dreams, fantasies, and delusions.
  65. What were the goals of Jungian therapy?
    1) To teach patients how to learn their neurosis  2) Balance restoration 3) individuation
  66. Know Jung’s Psychological Types.
    Introverts and extroverts
  67. According to the official Soviet ideological doctrine, the only “true” scientific psychology was the one based on?
    Marxist principles
  68. What does the term gestalt mean?
    Form, shape, manner, or essence. Represents elements put or placed together and defines togetherness. At first it was used to describe research of several German psychologist who studied perception.
  69. What are three important features of insight-based learning?
    Reflection, reconstruction, and transposition.
  70. The formula B = ƒ(P, E)  was first proposed by?
    Kurt Lewin
  71. What is topology?
    The complex study of the properties of geometric figures and spaces in terms of their connectedness, continuity, and orientation. Helps to describe and individual’s actions, intensions, arising conflicts, and puzzling dilemmas.
  72. Explain three leadership styles according to Lewin
    • Authoritarian- Leader makes all the decisions. Controlling, directive, demanding.
    • Democratic- Leader makes decisions after consulting with group. 
    • Laissez-faire- Leader doesn’t try to exercise control over group, and just gives general instructions and advice.
  73. What is Gestalt therapy?
    The initial impact of Gestalt theory on clinical psychology, and theoretical and practice field. Focuses more on the process of our experience, focuses on the here and now.
  74. Explain holism as a major Gestalt principle.
    it was based on holistic assumptions, the natural science, and theoretical rigor.
  75. Know the gestalt laws. definitions
    Law of Proximity, Law of Closure, Law of Similarity, Law of “good form”, Law of Figure and Ground, Law of common fate.
  76. What is cultural mediation in Vygotsky’s theory of human consciousness?
    one of his ideas was that speech is a mediator between an individual and the outside world
  77. Know what the Ellis island were and what the critics had to say about it.
    An immigration station where psychologists were used to deport the mentally retarted, by using a collection of tests (Binet test, geometry test, test on knowledge of everyday issues). Critics believed that many people who were identified as mentally retarded could have been normal. Also, tests could have measured culturally appropriate knowledge, and not intellectual skills.
  78. What did Critics of the Iowa Station studies have to say?
    suggested that researchers were biased in their observation and therefore had committed serious methodological errors that affected the result of their studies.
  79. Measurement of mental abilities—the ways people solved problems presented in tests—appeared to many a legitimate and effective method serving an important medical and social function, which was?
    Select people in categories according to their skills and potentials.
  80. What are Piaget’s Stages of Development?
    • Stage 1: Sensorimotor stage- infants learn about their interaction with their immediate environment.
    • Stage 2: Preoperational stage- children acquire language, develop imagination, learn the meaning of symbols, and develop creative play.
    • Stage 3: Concrete operations- children learn the rules of logic and begin to comprehend the laws of physics related to volume, amount, and weight.
    • Stage 4: Final operations- The time when adolescents develop the ability to think abstractly.
  81. What is a cognitive map?
    internal processing in which individuals code,store, recall, and decode info for about certain elements of experience. represents holistic patter that guides present behavior based on previously learned pattern
  82. What is the difference between the Skinner’s box and Thorndike’s puzzle box?
    • Thorndike put a cat in a box, and see if it got out. working on trial and error. 
    • skinner stimulus response outcome (or consequence). Measure the behavior to find out the consequence. Skinner took Thorndikes theory and made it better.
  83. Clark Hull tried to reduce practically every aspect of human existence to
    Mechanical and physical terms
  84. B.F. Skinner did not like the term “Skinner box” given to his experimental devices; he preferred to use another term, which was
    Experimental space
  85. In which way did Skinner continue Watson’s tradition in psychology?
    By continuing his research. He took what Watson was saying, and ran with it (formalized it and refined it, in regards to behavior)
  86. Erik Erikson theorized that all people pass through eight developmental stages that stretch from birth to death. Have a basic idea of what these are and what they deal with.
    In each stage, the ego faces a developmental of conflict or crisis.
  87. Edward Tolman suggested an expansion of the traditional S R (stimulus-reaction) model what was it?
    “O” stood for measureable processed or variables within an organism
  88. One of Murray’s major contributions to psychology was TAT or?
    Thematic Apperception Test
  89. Humanistic psychology is sometimes called “the third force.” Why?
    The idea that humanistic psychology came up from behaviorism and psychoanalysis.
  90. What are the main theoretical principles of humanistic psychology?
    1)Human beings should be viewed from a holistic perspective. 2) Human beings are aware of their existence. 3) They live in a uniquely human context that is not limited to their immediate surroundings. 4) Rational and knowledgeable individuals are capable of exercising their choices. 5) If human behavior is generally intentional, deliberate, and goal-directed, human beings are usually aware that their actions can cause certain outcomes.
  91. Know the Humanistic Therapy  Key Principles
    1) The process of interaction between therapist and client and the achevement of a productive dialogue. 2) The therapist downplays the pathological aspects of a clients symptoms and focuses on healthy aspects of existence and the ways to achieve recovery. 3) A therapist here may embrace any form of treatment directed at an individual’s personal improvement, enlightenment, and moral growth. 5) Humanistic psychology has inadvertently invited psychologists to discover the complete world of Indian and Asian philosophy and mythology.
  92. Know Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    Physiological, safety, love, esteem and self actualization
  93. Is it possible for every person to achieve self-actualization?
    There’s a hierarchy of needs, and in order to get there you must  meet all the basic needs to get there. But yes, it is possible.
  94. What are Maslow’s characteristics of a  self-actualizing person.
    An acceptance of self and others, a resistance to enculturation, spontaneity and simplicity
  95. Explain positive psychology
    A branch that studies the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive (sources of growth and improvement, used in class and workplace in helping individuals find strength and organization & identify their problems
  96. What is the holistic health movement?
    Multidisciplinary field or approach focusing on fundamental assumption that physical, mental, and spiritual factors contributed to illness are interconnected and equally important in treatment. In medicine emphasizes importance of psychological factors in medical treatment and prevention of illness.
  97. The cognitive tradition in psychology was studying what?
    Studying mental process and role in thinking emotion and behavior. Main concern is how we process info.
  98. Know Cognitive Psychology: Key Principles
    1.What people commonly called “mental life” could be studied from the standpoint of info, 2.humans are extremely complex computing devices(if we know how human mind computes we can use this knowledge to understand the human mind)3. any element in mental life can be explained in theory as info processin based on set of specific instructions or programs.4. work of the mind represnt a multilevel plan, described by an action or inaction
  99. In cognitive neuroscience, the brain neurons can be presented as “nodes.” What does a “node” stand for?
    A device of some sort which is connected to other nodes and attached to a larger network.
  100. Alan Turing believed that mental functions can be viewed as?
    Problem solving operations, programs or procedures

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