CSET 119: Molecular Biology and Biochemistry

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cornpops
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223345
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CSET 119: Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
Updated:
2013-06-11 01:36:04
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CSET
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Science CSET
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  1. Demonstrate understanding that a small subset of elements (CHONPS) makes up most of the chemical compounds in living organisms by combining in many ways
    CHONPS make up the monomers that join together to make polymers of the macromolecules: lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids
  2. Recognize and differentiate the structure and function of molecules in living organisms, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
    • carbohydrates - made of sugars, dietary energy in animals and building material for plants 
    • lipids - hydrophobic, vary in structure
    • fat - glycerol molecule with fatty acid chains, stores energy 
    • steroids - carbon skeleton that is bent to form four fused rings, vary in function according to their functional groups attached to the core set of ring
    • proteins - polypeptide chain of amino acids, have unique 3D shape according to function, perform many functions including enzymes, transport, storage, structural 
    • nucleic acids - polymers made from nucleotides, provide the directions for building proteins
  3. Describe the process of protein synthesis, including transcription and translation
    • DNA transfers its information into mRNA in transcription 
    • mRNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm where it binds to ribosomes
    • as a ribosome moves along the mRNA, it gets translated into a protein made of an amino acid sequence
  4. Compare anaerobic and aerobic respiration
    • anaerobic - without oxygen, does not use oxygen as electron acceptor 
    • aerobic - requires oxygen to harvest chemical energy from organic fuel molecules
  5. Describe the process of photosynthesis
    • light reactions - chlorophyll in the thylakoid membranes absorbs solar energy which is converted to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, water is split giving off O2 gas and electrons 
    • calvin cycle - uses the products of the light reactions to power the production of sugar from CO2 in the stroma

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