# Echo 530

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1. What is systolic function affected by?
• Afterload (Resistance heart must pump against)(Force ventricles face when contracting in systole)
• Intrinsic Ventricular Contractility (intensity myocardium in active state)
• Heart Rate
2. How do you calculate Fractional Shortening and what is the normal range?

What kind of a measurement is it?
LVEDd - LVEDs / LVEDd = 20-42%

dimensional
3. How do you calculate Ejection Fraction?

What is the normal range?

What type of measurement is it?
LVEDd3 - LVEDs3 / LVEDd3 = 60-85%

Volumetric measurement
4. When using Simpson's to evaluate systolic function, what are you really calculating?

What measurements do you use for Simpson's?
Ejection fraction

• A4 Length & Diameter
• A2 Diameter
5. Where would you measure for Circumferential Fiber Shortening?

vcf = mean circumferences / second. What is the formula?
M-Mode AO valve (LVET)

vcf = LVEDd - LVEDs / (LVEDd)(LVET)
6. CO = ?
CO =(d2)(0.785)(TVI)(HR) / 1000 = L/min

• CSA= d2 0.785
• SV = (CSA)(TVI)
7. TVI = Time Velocity Integral = ?
Stroke distance in cm
8. How do you calculate cardiac index?
CO / BSA
9. What is the normal CO?
4-8L/min
10. EPSS means?
Measured in what mode?
Normal measurement is?
• E Point Septal Separation
• M-mode
• 2-7mm

(AO & LA appear flat when decreased CO)
11. LV Mass = ?
(muscle volume)(density) = 1.04g/ml
12. Wall Stress is directly related to ventricular systolic pressure & _ _ _ _ _ _.
Wall Stress is indirectly related to wall _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _?
• thickness
13. Wall Stress =
WS = Force exerted on object / CSA

RWT=2PWT / LVID
14. Wall STRAIN is the _ _ _ _ _ applied to solid object causing deformation OR applied to liquid object causing flow strain.

What modality would we use to assess this?
• Force
• Tissue Doppler
15. Change P / Change T (time interval between 2 arbitrary points)
What do we use this to assess?
What jet do we use to measure this?
What time integral do we use to assess this?
What is a normal measurement?
• Time it takes to generate 32mmHg
• MR
• MR of 1-3m/s = ?change T
• 0.027 sec (27ms)
16. What is the doppler derived index of myocardial performance?
Myocardial Index
17. What is the continuity equation for:
MVA
AVA
ERO
2pi r2(LVOTvel) / MV vel OR AO vel

vs aliasing vel / MR vel
18. To measure global ventricular function we use IMP. What does IMP stand for?
Index Myocardial Performance
19. IMP = ?

What is a normal IMP=?
A-B / B

• A=Holosystolic
• B=Systolic ejection time

IMP=<0.4
20. Diastolic dysfunction reflects ventricular _________________, not disease specifically
physiology
21. Define: Diastole
Interval of AV closure to MV closure
22. What does the E on MV waveform represent?
• Early rapid filling (Active)
• -early diastole
• -rate of myocardium relaxation & elastic recoil (suction)
23. What does the A represent on MV waveform?
• Passive Force
• late diastole
• chamber compliance & stiffness
24. What are 3 basic causes of diastolic dysfunction?
• 1. Diseases affecting myocardium
• 2. Extrinsic - Pericardial disease
• 3. CAD (dd with systolic dysfunction)
25. What comes secondary to diseases affecting the myocardium?
• LVH d/t HTN
• Hypertrophic CMO
• Restrictive CMO
• Ischemic Disease
26. Name the diastolic parameters. (5)
• Normal
• Abnormal Relaxation
• Pseudonormalization
• Restrictive filling (reversible)
• Restrictive filling (irreversible)
27. What is the formula for ventricular compliance?

Stiffness?
Compliance = change volume / change pressure

Stiffness = change pressure / change volume
28. What is an advantage of using tissue doppler?
E velocities are relatively unaffected by preload
29. Normal E/A Ratio?
Relax abn?
Restrictive R ?
• >1
• <1

>2
30. Normal IVRT?
relax abn IVRT?
Restrictive R ?
• 70
• >110

<60
31. Normal decel time?
abnormal relax ?
Restrictive R?
• 200 ms
• >240
• <150
32. normal E wave?
abnorm relax?
Restrictive R?
• .85 m/s
• < .5 m/s
• >1.2 m/s
33. Normal A wave?
abnormal relax?
Restrictive R?
• .55 m/s
• <.8 m/s
• <.3 m/s
34. Restrictive MV "A" wave duration is ____________________ PV "a" duration time
less than
35. What can the valsalve manouver do when assessing diastolic dysfunction?
36. When you line up MV to PV, what letters occur at same time?
• E to S
• A to A
37. MVA= _______/_______
220/pht
38. pht=?
dt (.29)
39. Normal pht = _______msec
severe ?
• 30-60
• >220msec
40. MVA normal = __________?
Severe = ?
• >2.5cm2
• <1.0cm2
41. With a stiff, noncompliant MV would the pht increase/decrease?
decrease
42. What is the best quantification of MR?
doppler
43. What does vena contracta mean?
Flow convergence zone (<0.3mm)
44. Pulmonary Regurgitation
PAEDP =
4V2+RAP
45. WMSI=
1-
2
3
4
5
• normal
• hypokinetic
• akinetic
• dyskinetic
• aneurismal
46. dP/dT = 32/dT

dT=
time period between 1 & 3m/s
 Author: lstaal1 ID: 22338 Card Set: Echo 530 Updated: 2010-06-06 22:36:40 Tags: Systolic Diastolic Function Folders: Description: Systolic & Diastolic Function Show Answers: