Criminal investigation

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Author:
Candog
ID:
223419
Filename:
Criminal investigation
Updated:
2013-06-11 14:55:13
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basic perspectives
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review questions
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  1. The statute of Winchester 1285 required all available citizens to respond to protect the community under what principle
    hue and cry
  2. The person who is known today as the father of the modern police detective is
    Sir John Fielding
  3. The person who is now recognized as the father of modern policing in America is
    August Vollmer
  4. Early American police agencies typically hired police applicants based upon the candidates political connections rather than their ability to be a good police officer. this system of police hiring was known as
    patronage
  5. The person who first developed a system of human identification known as anthropetry was
    Alphonse Bertillon
  6. The scientist who theorized that when a criminal came into contact with another object or person a cross-transference of evidence would occur
    Edmond Locard
  7. The scientist who refined the technique necessary for the determination of whether or not a bullet was fired from a suspect was
    Calvin Goddard
  8. The study of the effects of poisons on the human body is known as
    toxicology
  9. The use of science to answer legal questions is known as
    forensics
  10. The federal law enforcement agency that would have jurisdiction in the event of a terrorist attach similar to the one on 9/11 would be the
    FBI
  11. ---------exists when enough facts lead a reasonable and prudent person to believe that a fair probability of criminal activity exists
    probable cause
  12. Which constitutional amendment provides the citizens of the united states protections against unreasonable searches and seizures
    4th amendment
  13. a person can waive constitutionally provided protections against unreasonable searches and seizures and allow an investigator to search, home, person, and property. such a search is known as
    consent search
  14. The us supreme court has held that a police officer may temporarily detain a person for questioning if the officer has reasonable suspicion that criminal activity may be involved. the person may also be patted down for weapons. this police action is known as
    stop and frisk
  15. This doctrine permits investigators to observe and seize evidence without a warrant if the officer is lawfully in a position from which an object are immediately apparent. this exception to the search warrant requirement is known as
    plain view search
  16. investigators who have established probably cause that evidence is likely to be at a certain place may make a warrantless entry into the premises if what type of condition exists
    exigent
  17. the method the courts use to uphold the constitutional protections against unreasonable searches and seizures as well as to control the investigators actions and prevent illegally obtained evidence from being used at trial is known as the
    exclusionary rule
  18. in the interest of public safety vehicles are frequently taken into police custody such as when reported stolen or when used in the commission of a crime. these vehicles may be examined inside and out, and any evidence of a crime may be lawfully seized under which theory of law
    inventory procedure
  19. when a wanted fugitive is apprehended in another state, the fugitive has a right to a legal hearing in which the prosecution must demonstrate the probable cause for the return of the fugitive to the state where the crime occurred. these proceddings are known as
    extraditions
  20. the decision to charge a suspect with a crime is the duty of which person in the criminal justice system
    prosecutor
  21. when a witness discussed the crime or overhears others talking about the crime he or she may unconsciously incorporate some of the information as his or her own. this process is known as
    retroactive interference
  22. the first officers on the scene of a crime should identify potential witnessses and -------them as soon as possible
    separate
  23. the essential elements of the crime are known as the
    corpus delicti
  24. the advantage of a crime scene sketch that cannot be accomplished with any type of photography is the
    elimination of unnecessary detail
  25. the crime scene search pattern that starts at one end of the scene and in which the searchers work back and forth until the entire area is searched is known as what type of search
    strip
  26. being able to account for an item of evidence from the time of its finding to its presentation in court is known as
    chain of custody
  27. which of the following should not be released to the media by investigators
    identify of possible witnesses
  28. the first officers responding to a crime scene are responsible for making sure that the scene is safe for other personnel to enter the area. this step in the coordination of a crime scene is known as
    neutralizing the scene
  29. officers guarding the perimeter of a crime scene are responsible for maintaining a chronological log. this log is based on what
    time of occurrence of events at the crime scene
  30. The brief contact with the victim and witness for the purposes of gathering suspect information is done for what purpose
    broadcast alarm
  31. the type of evidence that cannot be linked to a particular person or object is known as
    class
  32. the question as to whether or not blood was present at one time and has since been cleaned up can be answered with which test
    luminol testing
  33. bloody fingerprints, such as those left on weapons or at the crime scene, are known as what type of prints
    contaminated
  34. fingerprints found in soft material such as tacky tar or glaziers putty are known as what type of prints
    plastic
  35. fingerprints that cannot be seen with the naked eye and must be developed to be seen are known as what type of prints
    latent
  36. approximately how many sets of fingerprints are contained within the federal bureau of investigations national fingerprint database
    55 million
  37. the question of whether or not a victim or a suspect has recently fired a firearm can be answered by the examination of the following
    gunshot residue
  38. the crime laboratory can conduct an analysis of human hair. what cannot be determined from this analysis
    age/sex of the person who the hair belongs to
  39. fingerprints left on smooth slippery surfaces such as plastic bags can be developed by using which process
    cyanoacrylate fuming
  40. fingerprints left on smooth, nonporous surfaces such as glass can be developed by using which process
    dusting powder
  41. which piece of laboratory equipment would be used to determine the elements contained within mineral samples
    spectrograph
  42. the piece of laboratory equipment that is capable of identifying the components in the compounds is the
    chromatograph
  43. which technique is useful in determining if a suspect or victim has recently fired a handgun
    neutron activation analysis
  44. which piece of laboratory equipment would be effective for serial number recovery
    ultrasonic cavitation
  45. criminals often use codes and ciphers to protect the security of their messages and transactions. the deciphering of such information is known as
    cryptography
  46. many DNA samples are either contaminated, degraded, or small in quantity. these problems are overcome by which process
    polymerase chain reaction
  47. differences within a particular segment of a DNA sequence are known as
    Alleles
  48. DNA is found in all cells that contain a nucleus. each nucleated cell contains the full complement of an individuals DNA, which is called the
    Genome
  49. The state DNA data banks are linked together by the fbi to form a national DNA data bank known as
    CODIS
  50. THe professional name for employees in a forensic laboratory who conduct the scientific examinations is
    criminalist
  51. The claim of being somewhere else at the time of the crime was committed is a defense known as
    alibi
  52. a police report of contact with persons who are engaged in suspicious activity not amounting to a crime is known as a
    field contact report
  53. electronic surveillance conducted with the consent of one party to the conversation is known as
    participant monitoring
  54. eyewitnesses to crimes will often be asked to look at pictures of persons arrested for similar crimes. these photos are known as
    mug books
  55. when photos are not available, an eyewitness might be asked to collaborate with a police artist in developing what
    composites
  56. when more than one person is responsible for the commission of a crime and when one suspect is identified, the other suspects may be identified as well using which investigative lead
    personal linkage
  57. this type of lineup is held shortly after the commisision of the crime and involved bringin the witness to the suspects location is known as
    field lineup
  58. a person who has been arrested for a criminal offense and agrees to cooperate with investigators to supply information concerning others involved in criminal activity is known as what type of informant
    participant
  59. a person who supplies information to investigators about organized crime that is based on a position of trust and confidence from within the organization is knows as what type of informant
    covert
  60. this type of informant is motivated to divulge information to the police for a variety of reasons, such as jealousy, greed, revenge or to eliminate competttion. which type of informant is this
    basic lead
  61. when interviewing a subject, the investigator notices that the person uses racially biased comments and slurs. the investigator should take note of these comments as they relate to that persons
    credibility
  62. when interviewing a person, the investigator should be aware that the persons age, intelligence, mental state, and level of trial. these issues relate to the persons
    competency
  63. interviewing is a 4 step process. at which step should the investigator begin taking notes or start recording the interview
    second step
  64. at what step in the interview process should the investigator begin the probing process that would address any competency or credibility issues that might arise
    second step
  65. words alone convey only part of any conversation with another individual. what percentage of our converstions are nonverbal
    65%
  66. during the course of an interview the investigator notices that the person being interviewed begins to move around in the chair, jiggles his or her feet, and fidget. these are all signs of a lack of
    comfort
  67. during the course of an interview the investigator asks the subject who is responsible for the crime being investigated if he or she commited the crime. the subject states that he or she does not know who might of commited the crime, while at the same time he or she nods his or her head up and down. this combination of words and body movement is indicative of deception and an example of the lack of
    synchrony
  68. the factual analysis approach during and interrogation works best on what type of offender
    nonemeotional
  69. a sympathetic approach that uses expressions of understanding and compassion is appropriate for what type of offender
    emotional
  70. The supreme court established a two-prong test that determines when the so called Miranda warnings must be given. this two-prong test is met when which two conditions are present.
    custody and interrogation

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