microbiology

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Author:
mattnjaneal
ID:
223424
Filename:
microbiology
Updated:
2013-06-11 16:10:59
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respiratory diseases
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chapter 21
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  1. bacterial diseases of the upper respiratory system
    • pharyngitis - strep throat
    • complications of pharyngitis:  scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis
  2. bacterial diseases of the lower resp. tract
    • diptheria
    • pertussis
    • tuberculosis
    • pneumococcal pneumonia
    • primary atypical pneumonia
    • pulmonary anthrax
    • legionellosis
    • chlamydial pneumonia
  3. viral diseases of the upper resp. tract
    • rhinitis
    • pharyngitis
  4. viral diseases of the lower resp. tract
    • influenza
    • adenovirus infections
    • respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
    • severe acute resp. syndrome (SARs)
    • hanta virus
  5. fungal diseases of the respiratory tract
    • cryptococcosis
    • histoplasmosis
    • coccidioidomycosis
    • pneumocystosis
    • aspergillosis
  6. helminthic disease of respiratory tract
    human lung fluke disease
  7. pharyngitis
    • strep throat
    • cause:  strep pyogenes, gram +
    • symptoms:  pain, difficulty swallowing, "white patches" on a ared throat
    • complications:  scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis
  8. scarlet fever
    • scarletina
    • erythrogenic toxin
    • skin appears bright red
    • strawberry tongue
  9. rheumatic fever
    cross reaction of M protein antibodies to heart muscle
  10. glomerulonephritis
    • type III
    • hypersensitivity
    • immune complexes with strep
    • deposits in kidneys
    • kidney failure
  11. diptheria cause
    • corynebacterium (pleomorphic, snapping v, palisade)
    • diphtheriae
    • gram + bacillus
    • produces exotoxin that causes disease
    • kills epithelial cells by blocking protein synthesis
  12. symptoms diptheria
    • pseudomembrane - at back of throat; accumulated dead cells, mucus, wbc, and fibrous material
    • untreated can suffucate someone
  13. diptheria vaccination
    • toxoid
    • inactivated toxin
    • DTaP
  14. pertussis
    whooping cough
  15. pertussis cause
    • bordetella pertussis
    • gram - coccobacillus
    • kill resp. ethelial cells
  16. transmission of pertussis
    resp droplets
  17. pertussis pathology
    • incubation 2-10 days
    • cattarhal phase:  1-2 weeks of cold symptoms
    • paroxysmal (peak) phase:  rapid fire staccato cough followed by forced inhalation through a a partially closed glottis (whoop)
    • lasts 2-4 weeks
    • exhaustion and low O2 sats result
  18. pertussis vaccine
    acellular "aP" or attenuated "p"
  19. tuberculosis
    consumption
  20. tuberculosis cause
    • mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • acid fast gram + bacillus
    • intracellular (macrophages infected)
  21. tuberculosis transmission
    • resp. droplets
    • viable up to 8 months on a surface
  22. tuberculosis pathology
    • primary TB - macrophages ingest but can't digest TB microbe,
    • replicates and kills cell
  23. tuberculosis symptoms
    • asymptomatic to a cough
    • lung - localized, immune system walls it off in a nodule called a tubercle; infection is contained
  24. secondary tuberculosis
    reactivated, physical trauma disrupts tubercle (surgery, chest traume); immunocompromised
  25. disseminated TB
    travels to another organ and forms tubercles. ex: to the liver
  26. tuberculosis treatment
    • MDR (multi drug resistant) strains, doesn't respond to common antibiotics
    • 3-4 different drugs for 2 months
    • 2-3 drugs for 4 months
    • MDR 18 month therapy
  27. tuberculosis vaccine
    attenuated BCG vaccine
  28. tuberculosis detection
    • PPD test: purified protein derivative
    • wheal and flare = + test
  29. pneumococcal pneumonia cause
    • strep pneumoniae
    • gram +
    • chains or pairs
    • pneumoccus
    • 92 strains
    • seasonal
    • encapsulated
  30. pneumococcal pneumonia symptoms
    • high fever
    • chest pain
    • difficulty breathing
    • rust colored sputum
    • elderly at risk
  31. pneumococcal pneumonia treatment
    antibiotics
  32. pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine
    • acellular
    • adults - 23 strains pneumovax
    • PCV 7 - 7 strains, children
    • every 5 years
  33. primary atypical pneumonia
    • NOT strep as the cause
    • 1' = primary pathogen (can infect a healthy individual make them sick)
  34. primary atypical pneumonia cause
    • mycoplasma pneumoniae
    • lacks a cell wall so it won't gram stain
    • slow growing
  35. primary atypical pneumonia pathology
    • slow to develop
    • causes walking pneumonia
    • common in children and young adults
  36. treatment for primary atypical pneumonia
    zithromax
  37. pulmonary anthrax cause
    • bacillus anthracis
    • gram + endospore forming bacillus
    • common in soil, so grazing animals can ingest spores
    • toxins: virulence
    • antiphagocytic capsule
    • lethal and edema toxins that disrupt WBC function and lead to edema, hemorrhage, tissue necrosis
  38. pulmonary anthrax transmission
    inhale spores also called woolsorter's disease
  39. pulmonary anthrax
    • pneumonia
    • 24-48 hours until death
  40. cutaneous anthrax
    • skin infections
    • appear black (eschar)
  41. legionellosis
    legionairre's disease
  42. legionellosis cause
    • legionella pneumophela
    • gram - bacillus
    • warm water; esp. hot tubs, whirlpools, cooling towers, AC systems
  43. legionellosis transmission
    inhalation of aerosol
  44. legionellosis incubation
    2-4 days
  45. legionellosis symptoms
    • high fever
    • chills
    • cough
    • pneumonia
    • also may have GI tract issue
    • over 65 and smokers at higher risk
  46. legionellosis treatment
    antibiotics
  47. pontiac fever
    • milder version of legionellosis
    • don't develop pneumonia
  48. chlamydial pneumonia
    • obligate intracellular parasites
    • transmission:  respiratory secretions, school aged children
    • symptoms:  walking pneumonia, bronchitis/pneumonia
    • no fever
  49. rhinitis
    • common cold
    • cause:  rhinovirus; highly infectious; aerosol and fomite transmission
    • picornaviridae, tiny RNA virus
    • 100+ serotypes
    • 33' to replicate
    • symptoms:  cold symptoms
    • treatment:  comfort; steam makes virus uncomfortable
  50. pharyngitis
    • sore throat
    • caused by different viruses
  51. influenza cause
    • influenza virus
    • orthomyxoviridae
    • RNA virus
    • genome - segmented 8 pieces
    • spikes - hemagglutin (H) and neuraminidase (N)
  52. genetic changes in influenza
    • changes over time
    • genetic drift - small change
    • genetic shift - drastic change; causes epidemic/pandemic
  53. influenza treatment
    amantadine- prophylaxis to prevent infection - prevents uncoating in phagolysosome so it can't replicate
  54. compications from influenza or other viral infections
    • reye's syndrome- caused: by aspirin or pepto bismal; acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of liver; children <15 associated with aspirin
    • guillain-barre syndrome - post infection disease, immune system mediated, loss of motor function, paralysis
  55. adenovirus infections
    • symptoms:  cold symptoms, conjunctivitis
    • cause:  adenovirus, adenoviridae, DNA, first isolated from adenoids of military members
    • gene therapy:  using this to help cystic fibrosis
  56. respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
    • paramyxoviridae, RNA
    • forms syncytia - fusion of multiple host cell into giant multinucleated - viral protein make cells stick together and fuse
    • symptoms:  bronchitis and viral pneumonia - at risk children under 1 and premies
  57. severe acute resp syndrome - SARs
    • cause: SARS CO V - coronaviridae (spikes in crown pattern), RNA
    • symptoms: mild to severe case of life threatening pneumonia
    • transmission:  resp. droplets, civets (cat like)
  58. hanta virus
    • bunyaviridae
    • vector: rodents/mice
    • transmission:  inhalation
    • symptoms:  resp. illness, can progress ARDS (Acute respiratory stress syndrome)
  59. cryptococcosis
    • cause:  cryptococcus neoformans
    • transmission:  inhale spores - bird (pigeon) dropping
    • mild selp limiting pneumonia
  60. histoplasmosis
    • histoplasma capsulatum
    • 5% suffer pulmonary, skin, occular or systemic
    • ohio and mississippi river valley - grow in bird and bat dropping
  61. coccidioidomycosis
    • coccidiodesimmitis
    • southwest US, arid, inhalation of arthrospores
    • 60% of people asymptomatic/mild
    • 40% get flu symptoms, cough, fever, etc
  62. pneumocystosis
    • pneumocystic jerovicii
    • formerly pneumocystis carinii
    • transmission:  resp. droplets
    • opportunistic immunocompromised @ risk to develop pneumocystis pneumonia PCP
    • helped lead to HIV discovery
  63. aspergillosis
    • aspergillus fumagatis
    • inhalation of spores - lungs are colonized forming aspergilloma (ball of hyphae) can look like tumor or TB; crowds out healthy lung tissue
  64. helminthis disease
    • human lung fluke disease - intermediate host - snails
    • transmission:  raw or undercooked fish, ingest metacercaria enter blood from GI tract, travel to lungs, lay eggs, cough up and swallow eggs

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