science ch3

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science ch3
2013-06-11 23:01:11

respiratory system, circulatory system, excretory system, digestive system, working together to protect body
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  1. what are the two types of system of animals
    • - obtain and use nutrients and remove waste
    • - control the functions of the body
  2. what is the respiratory system
    - absorbs oxygen from air and getting rid of carbon dioxide
  3. in the respiratory system, what is the function of the tongue
    manipulates and tastes food
  4. in the respiratory system, what is the function of the epiglottis
    flap of tissue that covers the trachea when you swallow food. it prevents food from going into your lungs.
  5. in the respiratory system, what is the function of the tracha
    tube which air goes through
  6. in the respiratory system, what is the function of the lung
    gas exchange occurs in this organ
  7. in the respiratory system, what is the function of the bronchus
    tube brings air into lungs
  8. in the respiratory system, what is the function of the bronchiole
    attached to the bronchus and alveoli
  9. in the respiratory system, what is the function of the alveoli
    air sacs at the end of the bronchiole tubes where oxygen is dropped off to your blood and carbon dioxide is removed
  10. in the respiratory system, what is the function of the rib cage
    protects the lungs
  11. in the respiratory system, what is the function of the diaphragm
    muscle that helps breathing
  12. define breathing
    regular movement of air into and out of the lungs
  13. which two organs are largely responsible for breathing
    diaphragm and ribs
  14. where is the diaphragm
    large sheet of muscles under your lungs
  15. describe the process of air in (3)
    • - rib muscles and diaphragm contract causing the ribs to move out and up
    • - diaphragm flattens
    • - all these things make more room for the air to enter
  16. describe the process of air out (3)
    • - rib muscles and diaphragm relax causing ribs to move in and down
    • - diaphragm curves upwards
    • - all these things make less room for the air and it exits
  17. what is the circulatory system
    • - movement of blood around the body
    • - distribute oxygen around the body and return carbon dioxide back to lungs to be inhaled
  18. what does the blood do in the circulatory system (2)
    • - carries and drops off oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body
    • - blood removes carbon dioxide and wastes from all parts of the body
  19. describe the process of open circulatory system (3)
    • - this is where blood carrying oxygen and nutrients is pumped into the body cavities (sac)
    • - blood bathes the cells with oxygen and drawn back to the heart through open pores in blood vessels
    • - blood is not always contained in blood vessels here
  20. what happens in the closed circulatory system  (1)
    - blood is always contained in blood vessels
  21. give 3 kinds of blood vessels and define them
    arteries - blood vessels that take blood away from the heart 

    veins - blood vessels that take blood to the heart

    capillaries - smallest blood vessels where gases, waste, and nutrients are exchanged
  22. what is the direction of blood flow
    heart >

    arteries (blood vessels that carry oxygen/nutrients to the rest of body) >

    • capillaries (drops off oxygen/nutrients to the cells in the body)>
    • veins (takes carbon dioxide/wastes back to heart>
    • heart.
  23. how many chambers in the heart made out of 
  24. what are the top chambers
  25. what does the atria do
    collect blood entering the heart
  26. what are the bottom chambers
  27. what are the ventricles
    - more muscular than the atria because they are for pumping the oxygenated blood to the rest of the body
  28. describe the process of twin pumps
    • - right atrium collects blood low in oxygen from the body and send it toe the right ventricle 
    • - right ventricle sends this blood to the lungs and drops off the carbon dioxide and picks up the oxygen
    • - the oxygenated blood gets send back to the heart and goes to the left atrium
    • - blood goes to the left ventricle and pumped to the left of the body via blood vessels
    • body cells then remove the oxygen from the blood and replaces it with carbon dioxide
    • - deoxygenated blood is sent back to the right atrium 
  29. what do valves in the heart do 
    keep blood moving in one direction
  30. where are valves
    • - in between the atria and ventricles
    • - ventricles and arteries
    • - veins
  31. what happens when blood tries to move backwards
    the valve closes 
  32. what is the process of one-way flow
    • - when atria relaxes, it will be fill with blood
    • - atria contract and push blood into ventricles
    • - ventricles contract and some of the blood may try and go back to the atria, but valves prevent this from happening
    • - ventricles contract, blood moves into arteries
    • - ventricles relax
  33. what is the excretory system
    • - process of removing waste from cells
    • - responsible for collects waste from bloodstream and excretes it as urine
  34. what happens to the carbon dioxide is the excretory system
    diffused through the bloodstream and then eliminated by the respiratory system
  35. how fast does blood travels 
  36. what happens to the proteins that're no longer of use
    broken down into the livre
  37. what happens during the process of breaking down the protein in the excretory system (2)
    • - energy is formed
    • - ammonia is produced
  38. what happens to the ammonia after it's produced
    liver changes it into urea which is less toxic
  39. what is ammonia 
    very toxic stuff that are produced during the process when you break down proteins
  40. what is the kidney make up of
    millions of tiny tubules, called nephrons
  41. what surrounds parts of each nephron?
    tiny blood vessels 
  42. what happens to the waste in the excretory system
    • since the pressure in the blood vessals of the nephrons are high, the waste is pushed across the membrane into a tubule.
    • - in the tubule, the waste're dissolved with a small amount of water, which is then collected into the ureter
    • - the ureter carried the waste to the bladder and it stored here until it is excreted.
    • - the waste is as urine in the cladder
  43. summarize the process of excretory system (8)
    • 1. proteins that are no longer of use are broken down in the liver
    • 2. during the process, protein energy and ammonia is produced
    • 3. liver changes ammonia into urea which is less toxic
    • 4. urea is dissolved into bloodstream and carried to kidneys
    • 5. urea is pushed across membrane into a tubule of nephron
    • 6. waste are then dissolved with a small amount of water, and then it's stored into the ureter
    • 7. ureter carried waste to the bladder and is stored here until it is excreted
    • 8. the waste is urine in the bladder
  44. what else does the kidney do beside remove waste (3)
    • - regulates water 
    • - if body needs water, it's reabsorbed into bloodstream
    • - if body has too much water, kidneys will absorb more water to be excreted
  45. what is the digestive system (2)
    - breaking large food molecules into smaller molecules for fuel, growth, repair

    • - enzymes help speed up process
    • - responsible breaks down food we eat and making nutrients for all the cells
  46. how do more advanced animals digest food (2)
    • - along a tube with a separate opening (mouth) and exit opening (anus)
    • - known as complete digestive system
  47. what is the pathway of food for the digestive system
    • 1. mouth 
    • - chew food (mechanical breakdown)
    • - saliva moistens food and has enzymes that digests starch

    • 2. esophogus
    • - chewed food goes here (peristalsis)
    • 3. stomach 
    • - protein in food is broken down by acid(chemical)
    • - broken down by churning(mechanical)

    • 4. small intestine
    • - pancreas produces fluid that neutralizes acid from the stomach
    • - this fluid contain enzymes that broke down protein, fat, and carbohydrates 
    • - liver produces bile that breaks down fat 
    • - extra bile is store in the gallbladder
    • - digestion is completed here and nutrients are absorbed

    • 4. large intestine
    • - water is absorbed
    • - fibre and any other waste materials that weren't digestsed are stored

    • 6. rectum
    • - waste stored here

    • 7. anus
    • - exit
  48. where does the food go (3)
    • - digestive system
    • - circulatory system
    • - all cells, tissues, organs
  49. what does the respiratory system consist of 
    trachea, lungs, blood vessels
  50. what does the excretory system consist of 
    kidneys, bladders, ureters, uretha
  51. what does the digestive system consist of 
    mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines
  52. what are pathogens
    any organism that causes disease
  53. what are the physical barriers we have (5)
    • skin
    • hair in nostrils
    • ears
    • tears
    • mucous
  54. how are our skin protected from micro-organisms (3)
    • - can't be penetrated unless broken
    • - usually can't grow on skin because we wash our skin frequently
    • - produce acidic oils (sweat)
  55. how does hair in nostrils help protect us
    filters air 
  56. how does tears protect us 
    special chemicals to kill bacteria 
  57. how does mucous protect us (3)
    • - mouth, nose, and trachea covered with moucous
    • - substances get stuck and cilia sweep it up
    • - you cough to remove the items stuck to the mucous
  58. how does circulatory system help protect us 
    it will release wbc into bloodstream when the body detects an intruder
  59. how does the micro organisms sometimes get their our defenses
    • - contaminated water
    • - insects that penetrate through body
  60. what is the immune system 
    - if pathogens get past our barriers and wbc, they produce a chemical called an antigen. antigen signals body to produce antibodies 
  61. what is the immune response
    use of antibodies to fight a pathogen
  62. why do people do cavinations
    so a piece of pathogen is injected into body and the body will produce antibodies that'll protect the body against future atks