anatomy eye exam 1

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anatomy eye exam 1
2013-06-11 19:46:33
anatomy eye exam

eye anatomy exam 1
Show Answers:

  1. what structures travel thru the optic foramen?
    Opticnerve (CN II) and Ophthalmic artery
  2. what structures travel thru the superior orbital fissure?
    • Oculomotor nerve (CN III),
    • Trochlear nerve (CN IV),
    • Abducens nerve (CN VI),
    • and Nasociliary branches of the Trigeminal nerve (CN V1) ophthalmic division
  3. what structures travel thru the inferior orbital fissure?
    • Maxillary nerve (CN V2)
    • Venous plexus channels (Ophthalmic veins)
    • fascicles from Pterygopalatine ganglion
  4. what lies on each side of the body of the sphenoid bone?
    cavernous sinuses
  5. what does the cavernous sinuses communicate with?
    • communicates anteriorly with the facial vein through the superior and inferior ophthalmic veins.
    • also communicates inferiorly with the pterygoid venous plexus and posteriorly with the basilar plexus, which in turn communicates with the internal vertebral(epidural) venous plexus.
  6. The facial vein makes clinically important connections with what 2 structures?
    why are these connections important?
    • Cavernous Sinus and Pterygoid Plexus through the ophthalmic and deep facial veins
    • Because of these connections, an infection of the face may spread to the cavernous sinus and pterygoid venous plexus.
    • Blood from the medial angle of the eye, nose, and lips usually drains inferiorly through the facial vein, especially when a person is erect. Because the facialĀ  vein has no valves, blood may pass through it in the opposite direction; consequently, venous blood from the face may enter the cavernous sinus.
    • Veins in this area do not have valves! MC area of infection.
  7. The Ophthalmic artery is a branch of the:
    internal carotid artery which supplies branches to supply the eye and other structures in the orbit. It enters the orbit together with the Optic nerve through the Optic canal
  8. Facial arteries branch off the:
    external carotid artery
  9. regarding superficial drainage, which nodes initially receive most of the lymph drainage from the face and scalp?
    pericervical collar of superficial nodes is formed at the junction of the head and neck by the submental, submandibular, parotid, retroauricular(mastoid), and occipital nodes
  10. regarding deep drainage, where does All lymphatic vessels from the head and neck ultimately drain into?
    the deep cervical lymph nodes, either directly from the tissues or indirectly after passing through an outlying group of nodes
  11. what nerve supplies the levator palpebrae superioris, superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique?
    CN III
  12. what CN supplies the superior oblique?
    CN IV
  13. what CN supplies the lateral rectus?
    CN VI
  14. all of the muscles of the orbit are supplied by what CN?
    except for 2. which are?
    and what is this innervated by?
    • all are supplied by CN III,
    • except for superior oblique and lateral rectus
    • those 2 are supplied by CN IV (SO) and V1 (lateral rectus)
  15. Levator palpebrae
    • Originates: from the orbital portion of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone.
    • inserts:in several places along the skin of the eyelid and the orbital walls.
    • innervation: oculomotor nerve
    • function: raises the eyelid, the direct opposite of the orbicularis palpebrarum muscle. These muscles are used together to blink and to close the eye during sleep
  16. what are the parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck?
    • The pterygopalatine ganglion (or sphenopalatine ganglion) is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the pterygopalatine fossa
    • submandibular ganglion
    • otic ganglion
    • ciliary ganglion
  17. what are the types of eye movement?
    • Converge: shift from distant to near objects
    • Divergence: shift from near to distant objects
    • Conjugate movements: occur when the eyes move in the same direction (e.g., to the right, left, up or down)
  18. function of superior rectus?
    • EI-ADD
    • primarily moves the eye upward (elevation)
    • secondarily rotates the top of the eye toward the nose (intorsion)
    • tertiarily moves the eye inward (adduction)
  19. function of the lateral rectus?
    moves the eye outward, away from the nose (abduction)
  20. function of medial rectus?
    moves the eye inward, toward the nose (adduction)
  21. function of the inferior rectus?
    • DE- ADD
    • primarily moves the eye downward (depression)
    • secondarily rotates the top of the eye away from the nose (extorsion)
    • tertiarily moves the eye inward (adduction)
  22. what is the annulus tendineus?
    is a ring of fibrous tissue surrounding the optic nerve at its entrance at the apex of the orbit. It is the origin for five of the six extraocular muscles
  23. function of the superior oblique?
    • ID-ABD
    • primarily rotates the top of the eye toward the nose (intorsion)
    • secondarily moves the eye downward (depression)
    • tertiarily moves the eye outward (abduction)
  24. function of the inferior oblique?
    • EE-ABD
    • primarily rotates the top of the eye away from the nose (extorsion)
    • secondarily moves the eye upward (elevation)
    • tertiarily moves the eye outward (abduction)