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which part of the exterior nose is "thin and mobile" and which part is "thicker and fixed" to underlying structures?
- thin & mobile= superior aspect
- thicker & fixed= inferior, more cartilaginous part
On each side the frame work of the Nose is formed by:
- Two Slender Pieces of Cartilage”....
- the Lateral Cartilage and the Alar Cartilage
what are the 2 parts of the alar?
- lateral cruz- forms the "curved outer framework" of the nostril
- medial cruz- turns sharply backwards and ends
Together the two Medial Crura form the framework of the lowest most anterior part of the Nasal Septum, called the:
(in the middle, like a bull ring piercing)
The highest part of the Nasal Septum is the specialized:
what do the olfactory fibers pass thru?
the upper portion of the nasal vestibule is lined with _____.
the rest of the nasal cavity is lined with______.
the Superior, Middle and Inferior Turbinates have a Mucus Membrane that has a High Concentration of what?
what is its function?
-  of mucus glands and blood vessels
- imp function: humidify and warm the incoming air
“ALL” of the Paranasal Sinuses and theNasolacrimal Duct for the Tears open into the:
inferior to the inferior turbinate is the opening for the:
where is the semi lunar hiatus located?
below the middle turbinate. it is a deep groove
what is located deep to the semi lunar hiatus?
a side chamber called the infundibulum
the infundibulum receives the openings of the:
- Frontal Sinus and the Maxillary Sinus
- Sometimes the more Anterior Ethmoid Air Cells and sometimes they open separately below the Middle Turbinate
where does the posterior ethmoid air cells open?
- below the superior turbinate
- (or above the middle turbinate)
where does the sphenoid sinus open?
- anteriorly into the Highest Part of the Nasal Cavity
- at the level of the Sphenoid Ethmoid Recess
what is located in the mucosa of the lateral wall of the nasopharynx?
- torus tubarius
- produced by the inward projection of the cartilage of the eustation tube
what is located behind the torus tubarius?
a deep recess called: pharyngeal recess
the floor of the nasopharynx is formed by:
- Soft Pallet
- which forms a “highly mobile partition” that separates the Nasopharynx and the back of the Oral Cavity
what are the movements the soft pallet can move?
what are these imp for?
- upward, backwards, and downwards
- swallowing and speech
Several small muscles are involved in coordination of movement of the Soft Pallet and where do these muscles converge?
the soft pallet from above and below
function of the soft palate:
- responsible for closing off the nasal passages during the act of swallowing, and also for closing off the airway.
- During sneezing, it protects the nasal passage by diverting a portion of the excreted substance to the mouth
- hangs from the end of the soft palate
- responsible for the sound of snoring.
- Touching the uvula or the end of the soft palate evokes a strong gag reflex in most people.
why would the soft palate retract and elevate?
- to separate the oral cavity (mouth) from the nasal cavity in order to produce the oral speech sounds.
- If this separation is incomplete, air escapes through the nose, causing speech to be perceived as nasal.
what are the 2 muscles of the soft pallet and what are their functions?
- Levator Palati- moves the soft pallet upwards and backwards
- Tensor palati- tighten the pallet when the tongue presses up against it in swallowing, may help to open the eustation tube
- makes a complete 90 degree turn around the pterygoid hamulus
where does the eustation tube drain?
what is its function?
- cavity of the middle ear
- maintain middle air pressure homeostasis
what is the only true movable bone in the face?
- articulates c/ temporal bone at the TMJ
what type of joint is the TMJ?
how many cavities?
- synovial joint, its a "double joint"
- with 2 separate synovial cavities
- separated by articular disc (flexible & highly movable)
what are the 2 articulation of the mandible?
- mandibular fossa (concave surface)
- articular tubercle (convex surface)
describe the aspects of the TMJ?
- most of capsule is thin and loose
- lateral aspect of the capsule is 'thickened by the lateral ligament
- articular disc is inside the joint
what is the articular disc made of?
- dense fibrous tissue
- attached to the joint capsule all the way around its edge
what are the 2 categories of movement for the TMJ?
- depression/elevation (hinging movement)
- retraction/protraction (gliding movement)
where does the hinging movement take place?
btwn the condyle and the disc
where does the gliding movement take place?
btwn the disc and the temporal surface
4 major muscles of mastication:
- medial pterygoid (closing of jaw)
- temporalis (closing)
- masseter (closing)
- lateral pterygoid (opening of the jaw)
- - closing the jaw is more powerful than opening
attachment of the temporalis?
- coronoid process of the mandible
- -lies inside the zygomatic arch taking up the entire area of the superficial infratemporal fossa
accessory ligaments that restrain forward movement of the mandible?
- stylomandibular ligament
- sphenomandibular ligament
how does the epiglottis sit in relation to the tongue?
posterior and inferior to the tongue
what are the extrinsic muscles of the tongue and their functions?
- hyoglossus- flattens the tongue and pulls it backwards and downwards
- genioglossus- compacts the tongue and pulls it forward
- styloglossus- elevates the tongue and pulls it backwards
what are the intrinsic muscles involved in?
handling food and in speech
the outer part of the oral cavity (the vestibule) lies btwn:
- the Teeth and Gums on the inside and the Cheek and Lips on the outside
- The Mucus Membrane of the Lips and Cheek are continuous above and below with the Mucus Membrane of the Gums
the upper and lower gums are formed by the:
Mucus Membrane that covered the Alveolar Processes on the outside and on the inside
the palatoglossal arch acts as a:
“Dam” preventing liquid from spilling backward past the side of the Tongue
function of the orbicularis oris muscle:
- close the mouth, purse the lips, evert the lips, modify the airflow during articulation –
- Therefore “Pressing the Lips Together Closing the Mouth”
function of the buccinator muscle:
- to pull back the angle of the mouth and to flatten the cheek area –
- Therefore “Preventing the Cheek from Distending when Intraoral Pressure is Raised”
what are the 3 salivary glands?
- The Parotid Gland (on the side of the face)
- The Submandibular Gland (beneath the Body of the Mandible) and
- The Sublingual Gland (in the floor of the mouth)
where does the parotid gland lie?
what nerve innervates it and what nerve runs thru it?
- part lies superficially in the posterior part of the cheek
- and part lies deep in the space btwn the Ramus of the Mandible and the SCM
- CN 7 runs thru it
- innervated by CN 9
what passes thru the buccinators entering the oral cavity at about the level of the 2nd molar?
where does the submandibular gland lie?
- under the posterior part of the body of the mandible
- and runs under the sublingual gland
The Saliva that is produced by the Submandibular Gland passes into:
the Submandibular Duct which runs forward in the Floor of the Mouth
Saliva that is formed in the Sublingual Gland enters _____ by way of ______
the Oral Cavity byway of several small ducts that pierce the Mucus Membrane of the Floor of the Mouth
what are the 3 parts of the pharynx?
what are the inferior muscles of the pallet and their functions?
- palatoglossus- pulls the Soft Pallet “downward and forward”
- palatopharyngeus- pulls the pharynx upward over the bolus of food and nearly come together