Micro exam Chp 14

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  1. How can normal microbiota become opportunistic pathogens?
    • Immune system suppressed
    • Changes in normal microbiota(antibiotics)
    • If normal microbiota get into a spot in your body they aren't supposed to be in.
  2. Presence of microbes in or on body
  3. successful invasion by a pathogen
  4. Portals of entry are:
    • Skin
    • Mucous Membranes
    • Placenta
    • Parenteral Route(deep stab wounds, bites, etc)
  5. Adhesion Factors:
    Ligands and surface proteins; lack of these could indicate an avirulent pathogen
  6. Infection is inhibiting normal body functions
  7. Any change from a state of health
  8. Things a patient feels(non quantifiable)
  9. Directly observable things such as swelling, fever, vomiting
  10. A collection of signs and symptoms that present with a disease
  11. Study of causation of disease
  12. Koch's Postulates:
    • pathogen must be present in every animal with the disease
    • That pathogen must be isolated and grown in pure culture
    • The cultured pathogen must cause the disease in a healthy animal
    • The same pathogen must be reisolated from the diseased experimental host
  13. Exceptions to Koch's Postulate's:
    • Some pathogens cannot be cultured in lab.
    • Some diseases are caused by a combo of things
    • Ethical considerations
  14. Ability of microorganisms to cause disease
  15. How severely a pathogen causes disease
  16. Virulence factors include:
    • Extracellular enzymes(substances that bacteria secrete through cell walls)
    • Toxins(cytotoxins, neurotoxins, enterotoxins, antitoxins)
  17. Hyaluronidase and collagenase:
    Enzymes to help pathogens get deeper into tissue
  18. Kinases:
    Break down blood clots to release bacteria into blood
  19. Stages of Infection:
    • Incubation
    • Prodromal Period
    • Illness
    • Decline
    • Convalescence
  20. Portals of exit:
    Tears, earwax, mucous, nasal secretions, sputum, saliva, blood, reproductive secretions, milk, bodily wastes
  21. Modes of Infectious disease transmission:
    • Contact:  
    • direct(body to body),
    • indirect(spread via fomites),
    • droplet(sneezing or coughing within 1 meter)

    • Vehicle:
    • airborne(greater than 1 meter)
    • waterborne
    • food-borne
    • bodily fluids(spit, blood, urine)

    • Vector:
    • Biological(ticks, fleas, biting insects)
    • Mechanical(on bodies of insects)
  22. Classification of Disease:
    • Acute: develop rapidly, short infection
    • Chronic: develop slowly, persistent or recurring
    • Subacute: in between acute and chronic
    • Latent: could be months or years before signs or symptoms show
    • Communicable
    • Non-communicable
  23. Number of new cases of a disease in a given area over a given period
  24. Total number of cases in a given area over a given period
  25. Disease that is normally occurring in certain geographical areas
  26. Disease that occurs at a higher frequency in a geographical location than is usual
  27. Careful tabulation of a disease by investigation
    Descriptive epidemiology
  28. Taking data acquired and analyzing to find out what's going on and how to cure disease
    Analytical epidemiology
  29. Test hypotheses concerning possible spread of potential diseases(Koch's Postulates, example)
    Experimental epidemiology
  30. Infection caused by pathogens acquired from the environment
  31. Caused by opportunistic pathogens from patients themselves(suppressed immune systems due to chemotherapy, etc)
  32. Direct result of medical processes, contaminated catheters, instruments
    Iatrogenic Infections
  33. Factors influencing nosocomial infections:
    • Exposure to many pathogens
    • Weakened immune systems of patients
    • Transmission of pathogens among patients, staff, etc
  34. Control of nosocomial infections:
    • Using sharps containers(no sheathing of sharp objects such as needles)
    • Use protective barriers
    • Washing hands often and immediately after dealing with contaminates
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Micro exam Chp 14
2013-06-12 01:10:40
Micro chp 14

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