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2013-06-11 21:37:21
Modern Political Thought test review

Modern Political Thought: Test #1 Review - Concepts
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  1. Divided Line
    Stages of cognition – Knowledge (intelligence, thinking) vs. opinion (belief, imagination)
  2. Theoretical Sciences
    metaphysics, mathematics, physics
  3. Sin
    Does not exist for Plato, Aristotle, Romans; Is a Christian concept – sins must be avoided/confessed.
  4. City of Luxury
    People want more than the bare minimum. Need luxuries to be satisfied. Luxuries lead to envy and the need to protect our things ***armed camp***
  5. Monarchy
    Rule of one in interest of all
  6. Cave Allegory
    Believe what we see in the cave, prisoners from knowing what is really out there
  7. City of Pigs
    Socrates definition is too basic/for pigs: only includes basic food, shelter, small amusements
  8. Moral Virtues
    can only be achieved through good habits
  9. Aristocracy
    love of wisdom
  10. Tyranny
    love of self, needs to protect what we have (will vote for Hitler)
  11. Anthropological Principle – x
  12. Spoudaios
    the gentleman.
  13. Natural Law
    Use of reason
  14. Homonoia
    basis of friendship is similar views, not looks/wealth/etc.
  15. Christianity
    following of the teachings of Jesus.
  16. City of God
    only God knows who belongs to the City of God
  17. Pelagianism
    belief that original sin did not taint human nature
  18. Three Waves
    From Plato’s Republic; Socrates saying there are three issues within society: (1) gender, (2) property (how should wealth be distributed, taxes, etc.), and (3) who should rule and why.
  19. Democracy
    love of freedom over aiming for excellence
  20. Guardians – start out as guards, choose our rulers (to identify friend vs. foe) from guardians to rulers (= Philosopher Rulers); those who remain guardians are auxillaries.
  21. Philosophy
    Study of fundamental problems: reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason
  22. City of Speech – Plato
  23. City of Beauty – Socrates asks who do we trust/choose to guard our luxuries? We want the courageous & brave!
    • • Must train who is good vs. bad & how to use the weapons
    • o Requires education to determine who are friends and enemies.
    • o Sometimes friends become enemies and vice versa. (ex: funding Al Queda to fight Russia in 80s, now our enemy.)
  24. Eternal Law
    Will of God
  25. Cardinal Virtues
    (1) Moderation, (2) Courage, (3) Wisdom, (4) Justice; Greek.
  26. Practical Sciences
    Political science
  27. Eudaimonia – Greek; happiness/welfare
  28. Timocracy
    Property owners may participate in government; love of honor is ruling principle
  29. Monotheism
    Belief in one god
  30. Stoicism – believe humans are defined by our ability for rationality, are engaged with the universe when using our mind; Zeno, Cicero, Marcus Orealious
  31. Original Sin – story of Adam and Eve’s bad choices that taint all humans at birth.
  32. Divine Law
    Will of god
  33. Oligarchy
    Love of money over education
  34. Noble Lie
    white lie; lie for the good of another
  35. Episteme
    Greek for knowledge.
  36. Arianism
    Arius; Christ as human
  37. Auxiliaries
    guardians who do not ascend to leadership
  38. City of Man
    Household tribes polis
  39. Donatism
    Donatus, Bishop of Carthage; Betrayal and re-baptism; purity of the church
  40. Mixed Constitution
    Legislative – the many, make law; Executive – the one, enforce law; Judicial – the few, interpret law
  41. Polity
    Rule of the many in interest of all; changed to Republic
  42. Agathon
    Plato; The Good – our escape from the cave
  43. Intellectual Virtues
    Excellences of thought; can be taught.
  44. Four Causes
    Material, formal, efficient, final – require to fully define and understand a thing
  45. Manicheism
    Two gods; challenges Christianity; objective “truth”
  46. Human Law
    statutory law made by Congress.
  47. Republic
    Aristotle’s Politea; mixed constitution, civic virtue, keep small – what our founders aimed for.
  48. Palagianism
    Roman British colony; Palaiguis was a Christian monk; was teaching things that are heretical (like questioning original sin)
  49. Cicero
    stoic Roman philosopher, wrote Republic and Laws.