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Modern Political Thought test review
Modern Political Thought: Test #1 Review - Concepts
Stages of cognition – Knowledge (intelligence, thinking) vs. opinion (belief, imagination)
metaphysics, mathematics, physics
Does not exist for Plato, Aristotle, Romans; Is a Christian concept – sins must be avoided/confessed.
City of Luxury
People want more than the bare minimum. Need luxuries to be satisfied. Luxuries lead to envy and the need to protect our things ***armed camp***
Rule of one in interest of all
Believe what we see in the cave, prisoners from knowing what is really out there
City of Pigs
Socrates definition is too basic/for pigs: only includes basic food, shelter, small amusements
can only be achieved through good habits
love of wisdom
love of self, needs to protect what we have (will vote for Hitler)
Anthropological Principle – x
Use of reason
basis of friendship is similar views, not looks/wealth/etc.
following of the teachings of Jesus.
City of God
only God knows who belongs to the City of God
belief that original sin did not taint human nature
From Plato’s Republic; Socrates saying there are three issues within society: (1) gender, (2) property (how should wealth be distributed, taxes, etc.), and (3) who should rule and why.
love of freedom over aiming for excellence
Guardians – start out as guards, choose our rulers (to identify friend vs. foe) from guardians to rulers (= Philosopher Rulers); those who remain guardians are auxillaries.
Study of fundamental problems: reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason
City of Speech – Plato
City of Beauty – Socrates asks who do we trust/choose to guard our luxuries? We want the courageous & brave!
• Must train who is good vs. bad & how to use the weapons
o Requires education to determine who are friends and enemies.
o Sometimes friends become enemies and vice versa. (ex
: funding Al Queda to fight Russia in 80s, now our enemy.)
Will of God
(1) Moderation, (2) Courage, (3) Wisdom, (4) Justice; Greek.
Eudaimonia – Greek; happiness/welfare
Property owners may participate in government; love of honor is ruling principle
Belief in one god
Stoicism – believe humans are defined by our ability for rationality, are engaged with the universe when using our mind; Zeno, Cicero, Marcus Orealious
Original Sin – story of Adam and Eve’s bad choices that taint all humans at birth.
Will of god
Love of money over education
white lie; lie for the good of another
Greek for knowledge.
Arius; Christ as human
guardians who do not ascend to leadership
City of Man
Household tribes polis
Donatus, Bishop of Carthage; Betrayal and re-baptism; purity of the church
Legislative – the many, make law; Executive – the one, enforce law; Judicial – the few, interpret law
Rule of the many in interest of all; changed to Republic
Plato; The Good – our escape from the cave
Excellences of thought; can be taught.
Material, formal, efficient, final – require to fully define and understand a thing
Two gods; challenges Christianity; objective “truth”
statutory law made by Congress.
Aristotle’s Politea; mixed constitution, civic virtue, keep small – what our founders aimed for.
Roman British colony; Palaiguis was a Christian monk; was teaching things that are heretical (like questioning original sin)
stoic Roman philosopher, wrote Republic and Laws.