4. Labelling Theory
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Labelling theorists main angle..
Social Construction of Crime
Seven Topics under Labelling
- 1. Who Labels
- 2. Who Gets labelled
- 3. Effects of Labelling
- 4. Deviance Amplification Spiral
- 5. Criminal Justice Policy
- 6. Re-integrative Shaming
- 7. Evaluation
Labelling theorists on WHO LABELS and what they said.
- 1. Becker - 'Moral Entrepreneurs' lead moral crusade which creates new group of outsiders and expands social control agencies - they campaign for change to expand their own power.
- 2. B Platt - 'Juvenile delinquency' - created by upper class Victorian moral entrepreneurs
Labelling theorists of WHO GETS LABELLED...
- 1. Paliavin and Briar
- 2. Cicourel
Piliavin and Briar say...
It's about their appearances, background and biography
- 1. Off. stats are invalid - they should be a topic, not a resource.
- a) Typifications lead police to focus on certain types
- b) Probation officers less likely to support non-custodial sentences for juveniles from broken homes
- c) Justice is negotiable for middle class.
Effects of Labelling... two key terms.
- 1. Self Fulfilling Prophecy
- 2. Primary and Secondary deviance
Primary and Secondary Deviance
Sociologists? and what they said.
- 1. Edwin Lamert - defined Primary ('moment of madness') and Secondary Deviance (label leads to 'master status' -sfprophecy. leads to 'Deviant Career')
- 2. Jock Young - hippies - primary converted to secondary because of social control processes.
- 3. Downes and Rock - Not everyone pursues a deviant career after labelling
Deviancy Amplification Spiral
- Stanley Cohen
- 'Folk Devils and Moral Panics' - Mods and Rockers
- Easter 1964
- 1. Media and Press exaggeration led to growing public concern
- 2. Moral entrepreneurs called for crackdown
- 3. Demonised them as 'folk devils'
- 4. Caused further marginalisation resulting in more deviance
Labelling and Criminal Justice Policy
- Re-labelling of status offences and harsher penalties leads to secondary deviance
two types of shaming and how they work?
- John Braithwaite
- 1. Disintegrative shaming - labels them as bad and they are excluded from society
- 2. Reintegrative Shaming - Labels the act, not the person and avoids secondary deviance
4 key points
- 1. Deterministic
- 2. Gives offender a victim status
- 3. Why primary deviance?
- 4. Ignores source of power and labels
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