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In responce to two factors
- Jock Young
- 1.Produce Practical Solutions to rising crime
- 2.Influence of right realism on government policy
Main areas of Left Realism
- 1. Taking crime seriously
- 2. The causes of crime
- 3. Late Modernity, exclusion and crime
- 4. Tackling crime
- 1. Don't pay attention to working class crime
- 2. Romanticise criminals as Robin Hoods
- 3. Neglect real victims of crime - WC people
3 Main Causes of crime
- Lea and Young
- 1. Relative Deprivation
- 2. Subculture
- 3. Marginalisation
"the lethal combination is relative deprivation and individualism"
- A group's collective solution to relative deprivation
- Turn to crime to close 'deprivation gap'
- 1. Marginalised groups lack clear goals and organisation
- 2. Only have resentment and so turn to crime
Late Modernity, Exclusion and Crime
2.Late modernity charactaristics.
4.Similar to.. ?
- 2. 1970s on - increased unemployment, marginalisation, destabilised family, individualism and relative deprivation
- 3. contrast between cultural inclusion and economic exclusion
- 4. Merton's Anomie
'Hate crimes' in late modernity can spawn from..
Relative Deprivation DOWNWARDS
Concluding phrase on late modernity...
Late Modern Society is a high crime society with a low tolerance for crime.
3 main areas
- 1.Policing and Control
- 2.Tackling Structural Causes
- 3. Left Realism and Governement Policy
Policing and Control
- Kinsey, Lea and Young
- 1.90% of crimes known to police are reported by public
- 2.They are losing public support
- 3.SO rely on miltary policing and 'swamping'
- Multi-agency approach is needed
Tackling subcultural causes means....
we must deal with inequality of opportunity
Left Realism and Government Policy
- 1. Similar to New Labour
- 2. 'tough on crime, tough on causes of crime'
- 3. New Labour's New Deal, unemployed youth, reverse exclusion
- 1. Henry and Milovanic - ignores corporate crime
- 2. Interactionists argue - rely of qualitative data
- 3. Subcultural theory - assume value consensus exits
- 4. Not all who are relatively deprived cause crime
- 5. Focus on high-crime in inner-city areas gives unrepresentative view
Comparing Left and Right
- 1. Crime is a real problem
- Fear of crime is rational
- 2. Right Realists are Neo-Conservative
- LR are Reformist Socialists
- 3. Blame individual self control
- Tough stance against offenders
- 4. Blame structural inequalities
- Democratic policing - create greater equality