Phil Ch. 1.2

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gianni11
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223569
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Phil Ch. 1.2
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2013-06-12 12:40:50
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Phil Ch. 1.2
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  1. What are the two kinds of arguments?
    Deductive & Inductive.
  2. A good deductive is _______ . Which means the premise & conclusion must be _________.
    • valid
    • true
  3. If a person lives in Alaska, then they also live in America. This is a __________ argument.
    valid
  4. Josh Fulcher is taller than his wife, and his wife is taller than his son.Therefore Josh is taller then his son. What is the conclusion? Is this valid?
    • Josh is taller than his son.
    • Yes.
  5. The premise of a good deductive argument, assuming they are true, _________ or _________ the conclusion.
    • prove
    • demonstrate
  6. a good inductive argument, ____________ the conclusion.
    supports
  7. a good inductive argument, ______________________ the conclusion is true
    raises the probability
  8. The more support a premise, of an argument, provides for a conclusion, the __________ the argument is said to be
    stronger
  9. “The murder happened in the sitting room, and Colonel Mustard was not in the sitting room at the time; therefore, Colonel Mustard did not commit the murder” is an _____________.
    argument
  10. Words and phrases to indicate that a conclusion is about to be expressed include:
    • Therefore. . .
    • It follows that . . .
    • This shows that . . .
    • Thus . . .
    • Hence . . .
    • Consequently . . .
    • Accordingly . . .
    • So . . .
    • My conclusion is
  11. words that indicate a premise is about to be stated:
    • Since . . .
    • For . . .
    • Because . . .
    • In view of . . .
    • This is implied by . . .
    • Given . . .
  12. a legitimate claim that makes sense is either _________ or __________ .
    true or false
  13. What are ways of asserting a claim’s truth that a book is on a table?
    • There is a book on the table.
    • It is true that there is a book on the table.
    • It is a fact that there is a book on the table.
    • I agree that there is a book on the table
  14. You are entitled to say you know that a claim is true, provided that:
    • (1) you believe it is true
    • (2) you have justification for this belief in the form of an argument beyond a reasonable doubt.
    • (3) you have no reason to suspect that you are mistaken, such as that you haven’t slept for several nights or have recently taken a large dose of some hallucinogenic drug.
  15. What is a value judgment?
    a term for a claim that expresses an evaluation of something.
  16. What are examples of value judgments?
    • “It was fantastic”
    • “It was the best concert of the year”
  17. What is an example of a positive evaluation?
    “Jon Stewart would make a better president than any of the present candidates” states a positive evaluation
  18. “He is an honest man” is a _________________.
    moral value judgment
  19. EXTRANEOUS CONSIDERATIONS INCLUDE
    • downgrading what some- one says if he or she seems nervous or shifty or stumbles over words.
    • basing estimates of expertise on factors like accent or dress that usually are irrelevant
    • to transform a favorable opinion about a person into a positive judgment about what he or she says.
    • using the words “extreme,” “traitor,” and “treasonous” when referring to people.
  20. rhetoric —language:
    has psychological force but carries no extra weight logically.
  21. we must refine our ability to distinguish between the __________ and the ____________ in which it is given to us.
    • thought itself
    • psychological packing
  22. images, just like rhetoric, can elicit __________________.
    powerful emotions

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