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What are the two kinds of arguments?
Deductive & Inductive.
A good deductive is _______ . Which means the premise & conclusion must be _________.
If a person lives in Alaska, then they also live in America. This is a __________ argument.
Josh Fulcher is taller than his wife, and his wife is taller than his son.Therefore Josh is taller then his son. What is the conclusion? Is this valid?
- Josh is taller than his son.
The premise of a good deductive argument, assuming they are true, _________ or _________ the conclusion.
a good inductive argument, ____________ the conclusion.
a good inductive argument, ______________________ the conclusion is true
raises the probability
The more support a premise, of an argument, provides for a conclusion, the __________ the argument is said to be
The murder happened in the sitting room, and Colonel Mustard was not in the sitting room at the time; therefore, Colonel Mustard did not commit the murder is an _____________.
Words and phrases to indicate that a conclusion is about to be expressed include:
- Therefore. . .
- It follows that . . .
- This shows that . . .
- Thus . . .
- Hence . . .
- Consequently . . .
- Accordingly . . .
- So . . .
- My conclusion is
words that indicate a premise is about to be stated:
- Since . . .
- For . . .
- Because . . .
- In view of . . .
- This is implied by . . .
- Given . . .
a legitimate claim that makes sense is either _________ or __________ .
true or false
What are ways of asserting a claims truth that a book is on a table?
- There is a book on the table.
- It is true that there is a book on the table.
- It is a fact that there is a book on the table.
- I agree that there is a book on the table
You are entitled to say you know that a claim is true, provided that:
- (1) you believe it is true
- (2) you have justification for this belief in the form of an argument beyond a reasonable doubt.
- (3) you have no reason to suspect that you are mistaken, such as that you havent slept for several nights or have recently taken a large dose of some hallucinogenic drug.
What is a value judgment?
a term for a claim that expresses an evaluation of something.
What are examples of value judgments?
- It was fantastic
- It was the best concert of the year
What is an example of a positive evaluation?
Jon Stewart would make a better president than any of the present candidates states a positive evaluation
He is an honest man is a _________________.
moral value judgment
EXTRANEOUS CONSIDERATIONS INCLUDE
- downgrading what some- one says if he or she seems nervous or shifty or stumbles over words.
- basing estimates of expertise on factors like accent or dress that usually are irrelevant
- to transform a favorable opinion about a person into a positive judgment about what he or she says.
- using the words extreme, traitor, and treasonous when referring to people.
has psychological force but carries no extra weight logically.
we must refine our ability to distinguish between the __________ and the ____________ in which it is given to us.
- thought itself
- psychological packing
images, just like rhetoric, can elicit __________________.