What are the neonatal proplems associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus? [AI 95, SGPGI 03]
Hypoglycemia - hyperinsulinemia due to high maternal glucose level
Hypocalcemia - due to immature parathyroid
Polycythemia - because of increased erythropoietin from Intrauteine hypoxia, the placenta cannot supply enough oxygen , so baby increases the release of erythropoietin leading to polycythemia. The baby is Ruddy (very red) and plethoric.
Hyperbilirubinemia - increased destruction of high level of RBC, Immature liver. Also, the enzymes required in bilirubin metabolism require glucose.
RDS - Although the baby is large in size, it is not mature enough and enough surfactant are not produced.
Cardiac disease - risk of transposition of great arteries, [AI 05] hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
GI problems - lazy left colon syndrome - signs of intestinal obstruction - donot pass meconium