Neck anatomy exam 1

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Neck anatomy exam 1
2013-06-12 19:54:15
neck anatomy exam

neck anatomy exam 1
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  1. function of the longus cervicis and capitis:
    are "weak" flexors of the head and cervical spine
  2. where do the ant, middle, & post scalene arise from?
    • ant: arises from the anterior tubercles of the TP
    • middle & post: arise from posterior tubercles of the TPs
  3. where does the ant, middle, & post scalene insert on?
    • ant & middle: 1 st rib
    • post: 1st and 2nd rib
  4. function of the scalene muscles:
    • žare not actually involved in movement of the neck but instead are associated with raising the upper ribs during deep inspirationž
    • These muscles have important relationships to the Subclavian Artery and the Brachial Plexus
  5. semispinalis arises from:
    and inserts on:
    • arises from “multiple tendons of origin” from the Articular Processes from C4 to C7 and TP’s T1 to T6
    • Superiorly it inserts onto the Occiput
  6. function of the semispinalis:
    • žassociated with Extension of the Headž
    • Additionally when we are bending forward the “Tonic Action” of Semispinalis prevents gravity from Flexing the Head
  7. splenius arises from:
    and inserts on:
    • arises from the SP of T3 to C7 and from the lower half of the Nuchal Ligament passing upward and laterally to
    • insert on the lateral half of the Superior Nuchal Line and on the back of the Mastoid Process
  8. which muscle is more superior: splenius or semispinalis?
    Slenius covers over the semispinalis
  9. function of the splenius:
    žassists in Rotating the Head to the Same Side
  10. trapezius arises from:
    and inserts on:
    • arises from the Medial Part of the Superior Nuchal Line and from the Nuchal Ligament
    • Its fibers fan out downward and laterally to insert on the Spine of the Scapular the Acromium and the Lateral 3rd of the Clavicle
  11. unilateral contraction of SCM:
    bilateral contraction:
    • žUnilateral Contraction causes Contralateral Rotationž
    • Bilateral Contraction causes Flexion of the Head and Neck
    • žTonicity Holds the Head Upright when Gravity is Forcing Extension when leaning backwards
  12. function of the larynx:
    • žregarded as an intrinsic component of the respiratory system, and as such functions as a protective device for the lower respiratory systemž.
    • It acts as a valve
    • žE.g., it allows us to hold our breath, prevent foreign object from entering lungs, forcibly remove foreign object (cough)
  13. what is the non-biological function of the larynx?
    • sound production
    • its a sound generator
    • žThe vocal folds within the larynx vary air flow pressure via “lengthening or shortening, tensing or relaxing, and abducting or adducting”.
  14. what are the 3 pairs of extrinsic muscles of the larynx?
    where do they attach?
    • Thyrohyoid muscle
    • Sternothyroid muscle
    • inferior constrictor muscle
    • -all attach to the oblique line of thyroid cartilage, but are considered extrinsic because they have 1 attachment outside of the larynx
  15. what are the 7 pairs on intrinsic muscles of the larynx?
    where do they attach?
    • Cricothyroid muscles 
    • Posterior cricoarytenoid muscles 
    • Lateral cricoarytenoid muscles 
    • Transverse arytenoid muscle
    • Oblique arytenoid muscles
    • Vocalis muscles 
    • Thyroarytenoid muscles
    • - all of them have both attachments confined to the larynx
  16. name the suprahyoid muscles:
    • Digastric muscles
    • Stylohyoid muscles
    • Geniohyoid muscles
    • Mylohyoid muscles
  17. name the infrahyoid muscles:
    • Sternothyroid
    • Sternohyoid
    • Thyrohyoid
    • Omohyoid
  18. what are the 2 imp functions of the hyoid bone?
    • 1. forms the inferior attachment for the bulk of the tongue musculature
    • 2. holds up the larynx
    • - also helps to transmit the forces of the muscles that help to open the jaw
  19. does the hyoid bone have any osseous attachments?
    no, only membranes and muscles
  20. what are the 2 muscles of the hyoid bone that pull "upwards and forwards"?
    • mylohyoid- arises from the mylohyoid line      of the mandible, from the mental symphysis to the last molar The posterior fibers pass inferomedially to insert into the body of the hyoid bone
    • geniohyoid- arises from the inferior mental spine, on the back of the mental symphysis, and runs backward and slightly downward, to be inserted into the anterior surface of the   body of the hyoid bone
  21. if the hyoid bone was held in check  and the mylohoid and the geniohyoid contract, what would happen?
    it would open the jaw
  22. one muscle that pulls the hyoid bone "upward and backwards":
  23. stylohyoid arises from:
    and inserts:
    • lies in front of, and above the posterior belly of the digastric muscle
    • arises from the back and lateral surface of the styloid process of the temporal bone
    • inserted into the body of the hyoid bone
  24. what muscle passes thru the stylohoid?
  25. one muscle that pulls the hyoid bone "upward by means of a pulley":
  26. posterior belly of the digastric arises from:
    inserts on:
    • mastoid notch
    • passes thru a tendinous pulley attached to the hyoid bone
  27. anterior belly arises from:
    • a depression on the inner side of the lower border of the mandible,
    • close to the symphysis, and passes downward and backward
  28. contraction of the anterior belly draws the hyoid:
    contraction of the posterior belly draws the hyoid:
    • ant: up and forwards
    • post: up and backwards
  29. 3 muscles that pull the hyoid bone "downwards":
    belonging to the infrahyoid muscles
    • omohyoid
    • sternohyoid
    • thyrohyoid
  30. omohyoid arises from:
    • upper border of the scapula to the lower border of the hyoid body
    • has an inferior belly and superior belly with a central tendon held in position by a process of the deep cervical fascia, which sheaths attached to the clavicle and first rib
  31. sternohyoid arises from:
    • hyoid bone to the sternum
    • serves to depress the hyoid bone

    Arises from the posterior border of clavicle, and the upper and posterior part of the manubrium to hyoid body
  32. thyrohyoid arises from:
    and inserts on:
    It arises from the oblique line on the lamina of the thyroid cartilage, and is inserted into the lower border of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone
  33. sternothyroid arise from:
    and inserts on:
    • žarises from the posterior surface of the manubrium, below the origin of the Sternohyoideus, and from the edge of the cartilage of the first rib, and sometimes that of the second rib,
    • inserted into the oblique line on the lamina of the thyroid cartilagež
    • The principle action is to draw the thyroid cartilage downward
  34. what are the 3 extrinsic muscles of the tongue attached to the hyoid?
    • Hyoglossus  (flattens the Tongue and pulls it backwards and downwards)
    • Genioglossus (compacts the Tongue and pulls it forwards)
    • Styloglossus (elevates the Tongue and pulls it backwards)
  35. Hypoglossus arises from:
    • Arises from the side of the body and from the whole length of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone,
    • and passes almost vertically upward to enter the side of the tongue,The fibers arising from the body of the hyoid bone overlap those from the greater cornu.
  36. the genioglossus forms:
    • Forms the majority of the body of the tongue.
    • Its origin is the mental spine of the mandible
    • insertions are the hyoid bone and the dorsum of the tongue
  37. styloglossus arises from:
    Arises from the anterior and lateral surfaces of the styloid process but does not attach to the hyoid
  38. extrinsic muscles of the larynx:
    • superior constrictor
    • middle constrictor
    • inferior constrictor
  39. which is the thickest constrictor muscle of the larynx?
    arises from:
    • inferior constrictor
    • arises from the sides of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage
    • constrictors contract upon the bolus, and convey it downward into the esophagus
  40. Cartilaginous framework of the larynx includes:
    • thyroid (hyaline)
    • cricoid (hyaline)
    • epiglottis (elastic)
  41. what structure holds thyroid and cricoid cartilages together?
    cricothyroid membrane
  42. what is the opening above the epiglottis called?
    superior laryngeal aperture
  43. in front of the epiglottis lies the:
  44. space btwn the tongue and the epiglottis is called:
  45. what lies just below the true vocal fold?
    the vocal ligament
  46. small cavity btwn the vestibular fold (false vocal cord) and the vocal fold (true vocal cord):
  47. on test: the vestibular fold is considered what?
    the false vocal cord
  48. what is the shape of the vestibule during:
    quiet breathing?
    breathing deeply?
    speaking or singing?
    holding breath?
    • quiet breathing: diamond
    • breathing deeply: triangle
    • speaking or singing: slit
    • holding breath: completely closed