microbiology

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Author:
mattnjaneal
ID:
223627
Filename:
microbiology
Updated:
2013-06-12 19:35:51
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digestive tract diseases
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chapter 22
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  1. bacterial diseases of the mouth
    • dental caries
    • periodontal disease
  2. gastric bacterial diseases
    peptic ulcer disease
  3. diarrheal bacteria illnesses
    • salmonellasis
    • shigellosis
    • cholera
    • e coli
    • clostridium difficile
    • campylobacteriosis
  4. intoxications of the digestive system
    • botulism
    • staphylococcal food poisoning
    • clostridial food poisoning
  5. digestive system viral diseases
    • mumps
    • gastroenteritis
    • hepatitis
  6. digestive system protozoal infections
    • giardiasis
    • cryptosporidiosis
    • amoebiasis
  7. digestive system helminthic infection
    • pinworm
    • trichinosis
    • hookworms
  8. dental caries
    • cause tooth decay
    • cause: strep. mutans ad strep. sobrinus; use sucrose to produce Fructans and glucans to stick to teeth and colonize (tooth and gum area)
    • produce acid as they ferment sugar to acids erode enamel
    • prevention - oral hygeine, food combinations
  9. peridontal disease
    gingivitis - inflammation of gums lead to bleeding and receding gum lines, eventually tooth loss
  10. peptic ulcer disease
    • ph 1&2
    • cause: helicobacteria pylori- spirochete (use flagellum and spiral).  secretes protein to decrease acid production and produce urease which breaks down urea which leads to a rise in ph.  inflammation triggers ulcers  wbc come into fight
    • transmission - oral/oral or oral/fecal, zoonosis
    • treatment - antacids (proton pump) and antibiotics
  11. salmonellosis
    • cause: salmonella enterica
    • associated with poultry and reptiles
    • transmission:  contaminated (fecal) poultry and products, eggs, handling reptiles, ingest million + cells
    • onset 6-48hrs - nausea, vomiting, cramping, diarrhea, myalgia
    • treatment - hydration
    • prevention - poultry vaccine
  12. cause shigellosis
    • cause: shigella species
    • s. sonnei - industrialized nations
    • s. dysentarae - developed countries, more serious illness 20% mortality
    • s. flexneri - dev. countries
  13. transmission shigellosis
    FCFW, close personal contact, poor sanitation
  14. symptoms shigellosis
    • frequent watery stools, N/V
    • can develop to dysentery (ulcers in stomach and intestines)
  15. pathology shigellosis
    shiga toxin- stops protein synthesis in epithelial cells and kills them, lining dying , ulcerations froming
  16. treatment shigellosis
    hydration, self-limiting, dysentery; ciprofloxacin
  17. vaccination shigellosis
    live attentuated
  18. cholera cause
    • vibrio cholerae
    • gram negative
    • curved bacillus
    • cholera toxin - typical A-B toxin, B-attaches to host to trigger endocytossis the A part of toxin causes damage inside cell.  pump electrolytes out of host cell, water follows, water of intestinal
  19. transmission cholera
    FCFW
  20. incubation cholera
    few hours to days
  21. symptoms cholera
    rapid onset secretory diarrhea - rice water stools, colorless, odorless, severe dehydration - up to 20 liters perday
  22. treatment cholera
    rehydration (w/electrolytes)
  23. vaccine cholera
    limited use, short lived
  24. ecoli diarrheas
    • GI tract of animals
    • indicator MO - detect fecal contamination
    • O antigens - LPS polysaccharide
    • H antigens - flagellar antigens
  25. ETEC
    • enterotoxigenic E coli
    • travelers diarrhea
    • watery diarrhea
    • cholera like toxin
  26. EIEC
    • enteroinvasive E coli
    • similar to shigella
    • stools have blood and pus
    • 3rd world countries
  27. EAEC
    • enteroaggregative E coli
    • chronic diarrhea in young children and AIDS patients
  28. EPEC
    • enteropathogenic Ecoli
    • fever
    • vomiting
    • watery diarrhea
    • lacks shiga toxin (won't cause ulceration)
  29. EHEC
    • enterohemorrhagic Ecoli
    • 10% HUS (Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome)
    • bloody diarrhea
    • abdominal cramping
    • Ecoli 0157:H7
  30. UTI
    cause: often E coli
  31. clostridium difficile
    • c. diff
    • gram +
    • endosproe
    • anaerobic bacillus
    • antibiotic therapy causes or contributes to infection; you throw off normal flora
    • pseudomembranous colitis - diarrhea, necrosis of intestinal wall (enterotoxins)
    • use soap and water, not sanitizer
  32. cause campylobacteriosis
    • campylobacter jejuni
    • gram -
    • curved bacillus
    • domestic animals reservoir includes cows, goats, chickens, dogs, cats, rabbits
  33. transmission campylobacteriosis
    FCFW or unpasteurized milk
  34. symptoms campylobacteriosis
    • diarrhea frequent
    • can be bloody
    • up to 10's daily
    • fever
    • cramps
    • self limiting within 7-10 days
  35. prevention of campylobacteriosis
    proper food sanitation
  36. staphylococcal food poisoning
    • cause: staph aureus, gram + cocci, enterotoxin (heat stable, boiling over 30 minutes to kill toxin)
    • symptoms: 1-3 hours; nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • source:  buffets
  37. clostridial food poisoning
    • cause: clostrium perfringens, gram + endospore anaerobic bacillus, enterotoxin
    • symptoms: diarrhea, cramp, nausea & vomiting
    • source: contaminated protein rich foods (meat, poultry, and beans)
    • treatment: keep hydrated, self-limiting, no anti-diarrheals
  38. mumps
    • cause: mumps virus - paramyxoviridae
    • transmission: salivary and resp. secretions
    • incubation: 2-3 weeks
    • symptoms: cold and parotitis (swollen lymph), parotitis - inflammation of parotid salivary glands; orchitis- inflammation of testes
    • vaccine: MMR - live attenuated
  39. gastroenteritis
    • rotavirus - diarrhea that can last a week
    • vaccine - rotateq and rotarix; 2&4 months
    • norovirus - vomiting and diarrhea
  40. hepatitis
    inflammation of liver
  41. hep a virus
    • picornaviridae
    • transmitted: oral/fecal route, FCFW
    • incubation: 3-5 weeks
    • symptoms: mild- jaundice, N&V, anorexia
  42. hep B birus
    • hepadnaviridae
    • transmission: blood and blood products, STD, can cross placenta
    • symptoms: jaundice, bruising due to liver issues
    • vaccine: hep B vaccine; series of 3 followed by titer
  43. hep C virus
    • Flaviviridae
    • transmission: blood and blood products, STD, can cross placenta, dirty needles
    • at risk: IV drug abusers and prostitutes
    • symptoms: mild
    • 65% asymptomatic
    • 25% jaundice
  44. giardiasis cause
    • giardia lamblia & giardia intestinalis
    • flagellate, diplomonadida
  45. giardiasis transmission
    fecal contaminated water (muskrat or beaver, raccoons and dogs); ingest cyst
  46. incubation giardiasis
    6-20 days - depends on how much you take in
  47. symptoms giardiasis
    • cramping
    • diarrhea
    • flatulence
    • n&v
  48. treatment giardiasis
    • flagyl or atrabine
    • vaccine for dogs
  49. cryptosporidiosis
    • cause: cryptosporidium parvum, farm animals including cows
    • transmission: FCFW, ingest cyst
    • incubation: 6 days
    • symptoms:  watery diarrhea for 10-14 days, fever, anorexia,and nausea; risk for immunocompromised
    • treatment: rehydration
  50. amoebiasis
    • cause: entamoeba histolytica
    • transmission: FCFW, ingest cyst
    • incubation: 2day to a month
    • symptom: diarrhea and cramping, can progress to dysentery
    • treatment: flagyl or other
  51. pinworm
    • roundworm
    • cause: enterobius vermicularis
    • transmission: fecal - oral route
    • symptoms: perianal itching, due to female laying eggs around anus at night
    • treatment: self limiting but can prescribe antihelminthic
  52. trichinosis
    • roundworm
    • cause: trichinella spiralis
    • transmission: ingest undercooked infected meat (pork also game like bears)
    • symptoms: fever and muscle pain (these worms inbed in muscle)
    • treatment: anti H (helminthic) drug
  53. hookworms
    • cause: ancylostoma duodenale (old); necator americanus (new world)
    • transmission: shed in feces, larva attach to vegetation; larvae penetrate skin (feet), enter blood travel to lungs, mature and lay eggs, swallow and infect GI tract, can cause anemia

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