CSET 119: Structure and Properties of Matter

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CSET 119: Structure and Properties of Matter
2013-06-13 01:27:39

Science CSET
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  1. Identify, describe and diagram the basic components within an atom
    • proton - positive charge, found in the nucleus 
    • neutron - neutral, located in the center
    • electron - negative charge, found outside of the nucleus 

  2. What are isotopes
    • have different numbers of neutrons but the same number of protons 
    • some isotopes are radioactive
  3. Differentiate between atoms, molecules, elements, and compounds
    • atom - the smallest indivisible part of an element that retains its chemical properties 
    • molecule - a chemical combination of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by various types of chemical bonds 
    • element - a substance that cannot be reduced or changed into other chemical substances by ordinary chemical means 
    • compound - chemical substance composed of two or more elements, which are chemically bonded in proportions that determine the composition
  4. Compare and contrast states of matter and describe the role energy plays in the conversion from one state to another
    • solid - definite shape and definite volume 
    • liquid - distinct volume, yet it does not have a definite shape
    • gas - no distinct volume or shape, conforms to the volume and shape of its container 

    energy in the form of heat is added or removed in the conversion from one state to another
  5. Discuss the physical properties of matter including structure, melting point, boiling point, hardness, density, and conductivity
    • the physical state determines its physical properties and structure 
    • the physical structures of substances are the result of intermoleculer forces - the forces between molecules
    • boiling point - the energy required to break the bonds of the attractive forces between the molecules so that the molecules can separate and form vapor, the stronger the attractive forces the higher the temperature 
    • melting point - same 
    • hardness - for solid substances, expressing its resistance to permanent deformation depending on the strength of the intermolecular forces 
    • density = m/v 
    • conductivity - how well an object can conduct electricity or thermal energy
  6. Recognize that all chemical substances are characterized by a unique set of physical properties
    • chemical substance - any substance with a specific chemical composition 
    • any of the same chemical substance will have the same properties
  7. Define and calculate density, and predict whether an object will sink or float in a fluid
    • density = mass/volume 
    • density of water = 1.00g/cm3
  8. Explain that chemical changes in materials result in the formation of a new substance corresponding to the rearrangement of the atoms in molecules
    • in chemical changes, new substances are formed when a rearrangement of the atoms within the substance has occurred
    • no new atoms are created or destroyed, only rearranged 
    • for a change to be considered chemical the chemical bonds must be altered in some way
  9. Explain and apply principles of conservation of matter to chemical reactions, including balancing chemical equations
    • matter can neither be created nor destroyed
    • the number of atoms for each element does not change in a chemical reaction
    • the equation must be balanced so that each side of the equation represents an equal number of atoms of any particular element
  10. Distinguish among acidic, basic, and neutral solutions by their observable properties
    • acidic:
    • substance whose molecules release H+  ions when dissolved in water 
    • sour taste
    • litmus - red 

    • basic:
    • substances that react or accept H+ ions
    • increases concentration of OH- when added to water
    • bitter taste 
    • litmus - blue 

    • neutral:
    • do not have any of the characteristic properties of either acidic or basic solutions
  11. Describe the construction and organization of the periodic table
    • elements displayed in order of increasing atomic number with elements having similar properties positioned in vertical columns 
    • the number of electrons in the valence shell determines where the element is placed on the periodic table 
    • elements in a vertical column = group 
    • elements in the same group display similar physical and chemical properties 
    • period = horizontal row
  12. Based on position in the periodic table, predict which elements have characteristics of metals, semimetals, nonmetals, and inert gases

    • blue - metal 
    • purple - semimetal 
    • red - nonmetal 
    • group 8A - inert gases
  13. Explain chemical reactivity using position on the periodic table
    • elements within the same column of the periodic table have the same number of valence electrons
    • the similarity of valence electron structure among elements leads to similarities among elements in the same group 
    • there are differences among elements in the same group which arise from the valence orbitals which are found in different shells
  14. Predict and explain chemical bonding using elements’ positions in the periodic table
    • ionization energies decrease as go down a column and increase as we go left to right in a row 
    • large difference in electronegativity - ionic bond 
    • small difference in electronegativity - covalent bond
  15. Recognize that inorganic and organic compounds (e.g., water, salt, carbohydrates, lipids,proteins, nucleic acids) are essential to processes within living systems
    • essential and important to processes within living systems 
    • organic compounds need inorganic compounds to work efficiently in biological systems
  16. Explain the central role of carbon in living system chemistry
    • all living things are made of carbon
    • due to the number of valence electrons, can can combine with a large number of other elements to form many different compounds 
    • has 4 valence electrons - shares its electrons
    • carbon compounds are usually stable and unreactive