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bundle of connective tissue fibers that lock testes in position near anterior abdominal wall as fetus grows
when do testes descend? why?
- 7th month of gestation
- spike of testosterone causes contraction of gubernaculum testis
- One year
- sterility, increased risk of testicular cancer
- surgically pull down
what hormone determines male or female?
- presence of androgens = male
- absence of androgens = female
what gene on Y chromosome determines male sex?
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome
- lack of receptors for testosterone
- male genotype with female secondary sex characteristics
- no menstruation at puberty <-- sign
- raised thickening in scrotal surface, separates testicular chambers
- prevents tangling, friction
hormone that stimulates release of FSH and LH
source and target
- Hypothalamus: Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
- --> ant. pituitary
- inhibits GnRH and FSH
- slows down production of sperm
mullerian-inhibiting factor (MIF)
stops males from making fallopian tubes
what do prostaglandins do?
- stimulate smoother muscle contractions
- -male and female orgasm
how do sperm move before capacitation? what could inhibit this?
what is sperm food and where is it made?
fructose, in seminal gland (seminal vesicle)
- buffers against acidity of urine
- lubricates glans penis
- slightly acidic
- contains antibiotic seminalplasmin to keep sperm clean and healthy
other name for root of penis
neurotransmitter that causes vasodilation of penis
why can't a man pee with an erection?
urethra is compressed
what does the prepuce secrete?
Smegma- waxy material, can support bacteria
what two hormones target nurse cells?
- FSH and Testosterone
- promote spermatogenesis
what hormone induces secretion of testosterone and other androgens? what does it target?
- Luteinizing hormone
- target: interstitial cells
functions of testosterone
- stimulate spermatogenesis
- CNS function: libido, aggression
- Stimulates metabolism
- -protein synthesis
- -blood cell formation
- -muscle growth
Est. male secondary sex characteristics
form of estrogen found in small amounts in males
what can elevated levels of estrogen in males later in life cause?
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy