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female gamete is called
GnRH stimulates release of what two hormones? to do what?
- FSH- cause maturation of oocytes
- LH- trigger ovulation
what does the corpus luteum secrete?
estrogen and progesterone
what does an increase in estrogen cause?
- negative feedback to hypothalamus --> inhibits GnRH
- --> no FSH, LH
- when pregnant, more estrogen so no ovulation?
- -stop growth of other follicles when one is ready
degeneration of follicles (don't need all eggs)
what does the "winning" graafian follicle to to make sure it wins the race?
secretes estrogen to inhibit GnRh and stop growth of other follicles
what prevents entry of micro-organisms into uterus? what happens during ovulation?
- mucus plug (in cervical canal)
- gets thinner
4 most common cancers in women, in order
- 1. Breast cancer
- 2. Lung cancer
- 3. Colon cancer
- 4. Gynocologic (including cervical cancer)
what ages are typically affected by cervical cancer?
- smoking, HPV, STD's
- Pap smear
childbirth- fancy name
what arteries constrict to cause menstruation?
what layer of uterus contracts in parturition?
What hormone causes contractions?
when is day 1 of the uterine/menstrual cycle?
how long does it typically last?
- Day 1= first day of menstruation
- 21-35 days, average 28
first period (uterine cycle) is called _______
when does it occur?
- puberty- 11-12 years old
what causes puberty to begin? why does it occur earlier in the US?
- fat produces leptin --> triggers hypothalamus to release estrogen
- US kids are fat
Termination of uterine cycles
- 45-55, average 52
- Primary amenorrhea: failure to start menses
- Secondary: interruption of 6 months
3 functions of vagina
passage for elimination of menstrual fluids
receives spermatozoa during sexual intercourse
inferior portion of birth canal
- erectile tissue below muscles of vagina
- fill with blood, put pressure on penis
- on either side of vaginal entrance
analogous to penis (sensory)
analogous to bulbourethral glands of male
greater vestibular glands (lubrication)
analogous to prostate
hormone responsible for production of milk
hormone responsible for release of milk
stretch of suspensory ligaments of breasts over time
signs of breast cancer
- palpable lump
- puckering of skin
- change in skin texture
- drainage of nipple
risk factors for breast cancer
- estrogen exposure (more common for women who start period early/reach menopause late)
- excessive alcohol consumption
- excessive fat intake
where do breast cancer tumors begin?
cells of ducts
what percent body fat does a girl need to go through menarche?
- Thelarche: earliest sign of puberty
- -breast development
Pubarche: axillary hair, sebaceous glands, libido
when does a girl begin ovulating?
one year after menarche
hormones active during puberty and what they do
- Estradiol - more active form of estrogen
- -fat distribution, skin thickens
GH- increase in height, widening of pelvis
Oogenesis by the numbers
how many eggs are you born with?
how many do you have at puberty?
how many times do you ovulate in a lifetime?
how many are left by menopause?
1000 at menopause
2 phases of ovarian cycle
Follicular (day 1-14)
Luteal phase (15-28)
what happens in the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle?
FSH levels high
dominant follicle secretes estradiol
as levels of estrogen/estradiol increase, GnRH is inhibited
stops other follicles from maturing, stimulates release of large amount of LH
leads to ovulation
what triggers ovulation?
sudden surge in LH
describe "side effects" of ovulation
- lasts 2-3 minutes
- body temp rises about half a degree F
- Mittel Schmerz- pain
- best time to get pregnant
what day of your cycle do you ovulate?
about day 14
what hormone's level is increased during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle? what effect does this have?
- Progesterone, estradiol, inhibin
- inhibits FSH and LH so ovulation doesn't occur again
what hormone is released when implantation occurs?
- maintains corpus luteum, which continues to secrete progesterone to maintain endometrium
uterine cycle also known as ___________
4 phases of menstrual phase
Proliferative phase (1-14)
Secretory phase (15-26)
Premenstrual phase (last 2 days)
what happens during the proliferative phase? hormones?
estrogen is building up endometrial layer
what happens during the secretory phase?
- day 15-26
- estrogen and progesterone are maintaining endometrium for implantation
what does endometrial gland secrete?
glycogen -- ovum food
what happens in the premenstrual phase?
- last two days before menstruation
- progesterone levels drop --> constriction of spiral arteries
- mucous plug thins
- fluid discharges from vagina
- first day of discharge is day 1 of new cycle
what is menstrual fluid made up of?
blood, cells, serous fluid
how long does the average period last?
how much fluid is discharged?
about 5 days
40 ml blood, 35 ml serous fluid
what does fibrinolysin do?
prevents clotting of menstrual blood
penis becoming flaccid after orgasm is called
3 things that can cause impotence
- uterus stands up during coitus
- allows cervix to grab sperm
female ejaculation is caused by what?
slow degredation in testosterone and increase in estrogen in males
concentrations of which hormones decline in menopause?
- estrogen and progesterone decline
- GnRH, FSH, LH increase
- about one year before menopause begins
- irregular cycles
decline in estrogen levels leads to:
- reduction of breast size
- thinning of urethral/vaginal epithelia --> less stretch, more dryness
- thinner skin
- increased cholesterol levels
bacterial STD that shows symptoms such as burning pee and free-flowing white, yellow or green pus/discharge
can affect the anus, eyes, mouth, genitals, or throat
often asympotomatic in women, or mistaken for bladder/vaginal infection
may lead to sterility, PID
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
- complication of chlamydia or gonorrhea
- lower abdominal/pelvic pain
- scarring of uterine tubes, uterus, ovaries
- ectopic pregnancy
- primary stage: firm, round, painless sore (chancre)
- goes away in about 6 weeks regardless of treatment
- secondary stage: rash, maybe on palms/soles of feet
- hair loss
- swollen lymph nodes
- joint pain
- tertiary: difficulty coordinating muscle movements, paralysis, numbness, gradual blindness, dementia
- damage to internal organs
cure for syphilis
- antibiotics before tertiary stage
- symptoms will clear even without treatment
clear pustules on groin
increases risk of HIV
most rapidly increasing STD in USA
- virus -- HPV
- vaccine: Gardasil
- can lead to cancers of penis, vagina, cervix, anus
- (90% of strains don't cause cancer)
#1 cause of liver transplant in US
- inflammation of liver
- usually asymptomatic
- passed through contact with contaminated blood
- can be passed through placenta
- vaccine available at birth
- "silent disease"-- very often asymptomatic
- abnormal discharge
- burning sensation when peeing
- pelvic/abdominal pain
- pain during sex
- burning/itching around opening of penis
most commonly reported STD in USA
how does chlamydia infection grow?
- like a virus
- bacteria attaches to cell and repopulates inside it
louse in genital hair
- shampoo, comb, shave
how do you do the rhythm method?
- don't have sex 7 days before or 2 days after ovulation