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What is science – a body of knowledge, a process, a way of thinking, or what?
- A process, that is always open ended. it remains open.
- Always trying to prove it wrong.
What are hypotheses? Facts? Laws?
Theories? How are these
related? How do they differ?
- A testable question.
- True/False Question
- A hypotheses is always testable:True
What is involved in “doing” science?
Involves critical thinking
What is “empirical science”? What are “historical sciences”? How do these sciences differ from one
- Empirical- Follow the scientific method, directly observe it happen
- Historical-Paleontology is historical, we weren't there when it happened.
What is the environment?
Circumstances or conditions that surround an organism or a group of organisms.
What is environmental science?
What is the history of the environmental movement?
Be ready to compare the three forms of conservation we discussed in
class: utilitarian conservation, biocentric conservation, and environmentalism.
- in 1962 Rachel Carson wrote a book called 'Silent Spring'
- Environmentalism- is about health
- Biocentric-Preserve only; resources not used
- Utilitarian- using a resource while still preserving it.
What is ecology?
is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment, organisms have with each other, and with their abiotic environment.
What are living organisms made of? How do
matter and energy differ?
- Matter-Take up space and has mass. Made up of atoms.
- Energy-The ability to do work.
What makes organic molecules different from other molecules? What is the key element involved? Why is this element so critical?
- covailant bonds are higher
- Because it bonds easily with other molecules.
How does photosynthesis work? (As discussed in class.) How and where is energy stored? How is this energy released?
- 6 h2o + 6 co2 + solar energy=c6h1206 +6o2
- energy is stored as sugars.
- When is is eaten by organisms.
What are trophic levels? What are food
webs? How are these characterized?
- Levels in a food chain, starting from
- primary consumers
- secondary and so on.
What are biological communities?
What are species?
What are populations?
What are ecosystems?
How do these differ from one another?
- All the population of organisms interacting.
- reproductively isolated, genetically compatable.
- All memeber of a species living in a given area at a given time.
- Community and Abiotic factors
What are niches?
Something that works for a particular species.
What are predation, parasitism, etc.? How about competition? Symbiosis?
What are the different kinds of symbiosis, and how do they differ?
- Predation- keeps thing in order.
- Parasitism- feeds directly on host but does not kill it.
- Competition- Species benefit/Individuals don't
- Mutualism- Bacteria in the stomach
- Commensalism- moss living on trees
- Amensalism- Live together and one dies occassionally.
What are the properties of communities?
What is evolution?
Why is it considered a scientific theory?
How is this different from a “hunch”- or “guess”-type theory?
- A change in gene frequencies through time. Also occurs at the level of the population.
- It can always be questioned.
- their has been research done, u hunch is just a guess with no data backing it up.
Who first proposed evolution by means of natural selection? On what observations did he
(or they) base his (or their) theory?
- Charles Darwin.
- Galapagos islands observation of species.
What are the components of evolution? At what level - individual, population, species, etc. - does evolution work?
What does the scientific theory of evolution explain? What does it not explain?
What supporting evidence for evolution is now available to us?
Why is an understanding of evolution and how it works so important in environmental sciences?
What is exponential growth? How does it
differ from arithmetic growth?
What is Malthusian growth? (After whom is this kind of growth named?) What is irruptive growth? What is logistic growth?
- Exponential growth
- Thomas Malthus
- Boom/bust cycle
- Carrying capacity for the environment.
What are resources? What are the broad
categories of resources we discussed in class?
What is the “Tragedy of the Commons”? Who proposed this, and when? How did this individual claim the tragedy
could be avoided? Was he right?
What responsibilities do businesses have to protect the environment or save
resources beyond the legal liabilities spelled out in the law?
What are internal costs in an economic transaction?
What are external costs?
Who pays for each?
Can you think of any examples beyond those we discussed in class?
What is health?
What is disease?
What are allergens? Mutagens?
Teratogens? Neurotoxins? Carcinogens?
What are their effects? Know
these and the other categories discussed in class.
What various effects do pesticides have? Are these effects all by design? How do organisms respond? (Hint: think evolution). What are some of the problems with
What is the “grasshopper effect”? What are bioaccumulation and
What is biodiversity?
How is it measured?
How is species diversity assessed? What is
the difference between species richness and species evenness (or relative
How are species defined? What are the
differences among the various ways in which species are defined? What are the advantages and/or disadvantages
of these approaches?
Is extinction normal? What can cause
extinctions? What are mass extinctions?
(I asked you to remember two of these.)
What is the difference between weather and climate?
What are the different layers of the atmosphere?
What are some characteristics of each?
I mentioned in class that you should focus on knowing about two of these
atmospheric layers in particular.
What are “criteria pollutants”? Know them.
What is the “greenhouse effect”?
How does it operate?
What elements contribute to it?
Where does our water come from?
What is the hydrologic cycle, & how does it work?
How much global water (in percentage) is locked up in the oceans, or in snow, or in lakes and rivers?
Know these proportions
What are the three major ways in which humans use water?
What are the ways in which domestic water is used?
What activity constitutes the largest use of domestic water?
What are the differences between weather and climate?
What are Milankovitch cycles?
How do these cycles affect global climate?
What other global factors have an influence on global climate?
What is the overall tend observed in global
temperatures over the past thirty years or so?
What is the projected trend over the next few
decades (if things remain otherwise unchanged)?
How much of a reduction in greenhouse gas
emissions was recommended by the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC)? What emission reductions were
proposed during the Kyoto climate summit?
What is “peak oil”? When will we completely run out of oil?
What is hydrologic fracturing, or fracking?
Can the Unites States become energy independent?
If so, what needs to be done to make this possible? If not, why not?
What are some “one liner” objections to addressing environmental concerns? (We covered two in class.) What are some of the assumptions underlying
these objections? Are these assumptions