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What is cracking?
Coverting longer, less sought-after hydrocarbon chains into shorter, more useful ones.
How are fractions cracked?
Fraction is heated to vapourise them, then the vapours are passed over a hot catalyst.
What is the general formula of an alkene?
Alkenes are unsaturated. What does this mean?
contains C=C double bonds
How do you test for a C=C double bond?
Add bromine water. It turns from orange to colourless.
What is a polymerisation reaction?
The process of adding many small molecules (monomers) together to make very long chains.
Name the polymers made from
a) polyethene or polythene
Polymers are non-biodegradable. What does this mean?
microorganisms cannot break them down/decompose them
State 3 methods to dispose of polymers.
1. bury in landfill
2. incineration (burn then)
What is an emulsion?
A mixture of oil and water that stays mixed
Give 2 examples of emulsions.
What do these words mean?
a) water loving
b) water hating
How are vegatable oils hardened?
react with hydrogen at 60oC with a nickel catalyst
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated oils?
saturated oils have no double bonds, unsaturated oils have double bonds