microbiology

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Author:
mattnjaneal
ID:
223752
Filename:
microbiology
Updated:
2013-06-13 14:19:34
Tags:
genitourinary infections
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Description:
chapter 23
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  1. kidneys
    filter blood to produce urine; sterile
  2. ureter
    move urine to bladder; sterile
  3. bladder
    stores urine; sterile
  4. urethra
    MO adhere to epithelial tissue, use fimbriae to attach
  5. urinary tract of males
    common tract
  6. urinary tract females
    separate urinary and reproductive tract; shorter urethra
  7. UTI's (urinary tract infections) cause
    cause: E coli, klebsiella species, proteus species, and pseudomonas
  8. pathology UTI's
    fecal contamination, improper wiping, incontinence, frequent sex, catheterization
  9. symptoms UTI's
    • flank pain
    • fever
    • urge to pee
    • increased frequency
    • dysuria
  10. cause syphilus
    • treponema pallidum
    • spirochete
    • gram -
    • cannot survive environment
  11. transmission syphilus
    close or intimate human to human contact, STD
  12. How many exposed to syphilus will contract the disease?
    10-30% at risk
  13. incubation for syphilus
    10-21 days
  14. Primary stage of syphilus
    • chancre (hard, painless) at point of entry, red painless lesion containing spirochetes
    • contagious
    • lasts 3-6 weeks
    • more detectable in males than females
  15. secondary syphilus
    • 2/3 of those who experience primary syphilus will experience secondary
    • several weeks after primary syphilus
    • flu-like symptoms _ systemic fever, malaise, sore throat
    • rash - not itchy, rough and red or reddish brown, on hands and feet especially
    • very contagious
    • majority enter latency after rash disappears
  16. tertiary syphilus
    • about 40% of those who experience secondary syphilus will experience teriary
    • later, 10-20 years
    • symptomatic but not contagious
    • hyperimmune response
    • develop gummas (lesions) on skin or organs
    • can't be treated
  17. congenital syphilus
    • crosses the placenta
    • can cause stillbirth or lesions and sores
    • hutchinson's triad:  deafness, poor sight, notch peg-shaped teeth
  18. detection of syphilus
    • fluorescednt Ab's; Fab
    • slide agglutination assay (VDRL)
  19. treatment for syphilus
    penicillin for primary, secondary, or congenital
  20. cause of gonorrhea
    • neisseria gonorrhoeae
    • diplococcus
    • gram -
    • gon = semen and rhea = excess flow
    • also known as the "clap"
  21. gonorrhea transmission
    • STD
    • portal of entry: fimbriae to attach, cleaves IgA (secretory Ab protecting tracts)
  22. gonorrea incubation
    2-6 days
  23. gonorrhea symptoms
    • male: symptomatic infection, painful urination and purulent discharge
    • female:  50% asymptomatic, discharge, PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)- infection of female organs
    • salpingitis: blockage and inflammation of uterine tubes, risk for ectopic pregnancy/sterility
  24. gonococcal opthalmia
    • conjunctivitis, passage through birth can
    • erythromycin in eyes
  25. detection of gonorrhea
    isolation from pus
  26. treatment of gonorrhea
    cephalosporin or quinilones due to resistance
  27. chlamydia cause
    • chlamydia trachomatis
    • obligate intracellular parasites
    • 2 life stage:  EB - elementary bodies, dormant, resistant, infective form.  reticulate bodies - inside of host cell, obligate intracellular
  28. pathology of chlamydia
    • portal of entry:  attach to EB receptors, breaks in mucous membrane, STD
    • incubation:  1-3 weeks
  29. symptoms of chlamydia
    • many asymptomatic
    • lesion at site of entry
    • fever
    • chills
    • buboes
    • anorexia
    • females:  discharge, dysuria, at risk for PID
    • males: painful urination and discharge
  30. chlamydia detection
    • sample site of infection
    • FAB
    • visual exam and symptoms
  31. chlamydia treatment
    antibiotics
  32. chancroid disease
    • STD
    • 3rd world
    • cause: haemophilus decruyi
    • incubation: 3 days - week
    • symptom: papule and inflammation at portal of entry, develops into a painful ulceration (soft chancre, painful), buboes.
    • treatment: zithromax/erythromycin
  33. toxic shock syndrome
    • cause: toxin produced by staph aureus, TSST 1 - released by bacteria (MO) and enters blood, causes fever, vomiting erythema, low BP, and exfoliation
    • 1980's rely tampon - 24hr tampon
    • diapers aren't changed or staff wound infection
    • treatment: antibiotic - carefully selected
  34. herpes simplex virus II
    • STD
    • migrate up a lumbosacral nerve and remain latent
    • use protection and prophylactic viral
  35. genital warts
    • on genitalia
    • human papilloma virus strains 6, 11, and 16 are tied to cervical cancer
    • vaccine:  cervarix - girls; gardisil - boys and men
  36. trichomoniasis
    • STD
    • cause: trichomonas viginalis
    • symptom: vaginal itching, copious discharge (greenish yellow and frothy); males may be asymptomatic
    • treatment: metronidazole
  37. vaginal candiasis
    • candida albicans
    • normal flora overgrowth
    • symptoms: vaginal itching; chunky cottage cheese discharge
    • treatment: OTC; azole
  38. genitourinary bacterial infections
    • UTI
    • syphilus
    • gonorrhea
    • chlamydia
    • chancroid disease
    • toxic shock syndrome
  39. genitourinary viral infections
    • herpes simplex virus II
    • genital warts
  40. genitourinary protozoal infections
    trichomoniasis
  41. genitourinary fungal infection
    vaginal candidiasis

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