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One general thing you can say about the government involvement in everyday life is ___________
What are the levels of government?
What are some of the Federal Government responsibilities?
- Laws & Rights
- Machinery & Weapons
- Statistic Canada
- National Defence
- Banking & Issuing money
- Marriage & Divorce
- Canada Post (mail)
- Aboriginal People & Land Claims
- Employment Insurance
What are some of the Provincial Government responsibilities?
- LCBO (liquor control board of Ontario)
- Natural resource
- Provincial Court
- Civil Rights
- Private Property
- Driver's License
- License for shops & Companies
- Provincial Taxes
- Roads & Highways
- Zoos & Pets
- Hospitals & Health
What are some of the Municipal Government responsibilities?
- City Hall
- Local Police
- Sewers & Sewage
- Property Taxes
- Local Roads
- Public Transit
- Fire Protection
- Parks & Recreation
- Store Hours
- Food Inspection
What are the 3 branches of government?
What does Judicial "mean"?
Supermen Court of Canada or court in general
What does Executive "mean"?
Plans & Policies
What does Legislative "mean"?
Who is in the Executive Branch of government?
- Federal level : Queen (Governor General), Prime Minister
- Provincial level: Queen (Lieutenant-Governor), Premier
- Public Services
Who is in the Legislative Branch of government?
- Governor General
- Senate (Upper Class)
- Legislative Assembly (MPPs)
- House of Commons (Lower Class)
Who is in the Judicial Branch of government?
- Supremes Court of Canada
- Appeal Division
- Criminal Division
- Civil Division
Who is the Queen in the Federal Government? What are the duties?
- Head of the state
- Represented by the Governor General at federal level
- Represented by the Lieutenant Governor at each provincial level
- Appoints Governor General recommendation of Prime Minister
- Needs royal consent (signature) to pass a bill as a law
- Summoning Parliament, provincial legislatures, appointing senators, calling elections
How does the Queen get their her position? And how long does she stay?
- Born into it
- Passed through Royal family
Stays all her life
Who is the Governor Governor in the Federal Government? What are the duties?
- Represents the Queen in Canada
- Signs bills into laws
- "Royal consent"
- Protects integrity of government
- Performs ceremonial tasks
How does the Governor General get their position? How long do they stay?
Appointed by Queen with advice from Prime Minister
Can change when there is a new PM
Who is the Lieutenant-Governor in the Federal Government? What are the duties?
- Represents the Queen in each province
- Signs bills into laws
- "Royal Consent"
- Performs ceremonial tasks
- Protects integrity of government
Who is the Prime Minister in the Federal Government? What are the duties?
- Had and leader of federal government and nation
- Leader of national party in power
- Speaks on behalf of Canadian citizens Spokesperson for the party
- Carries out laws and regulations
- Most powerful person in Parliament
- Meets and negotiates with foreign leaders
How does the Prime Minister get their position? How long do they stay?
- Leader of the national power in power
- Party with the most elected seats in government
Stays for 4-5 years; possible re-election
Who is the Cabinet in the Federal Government? What are the duties?
- Head of the federal government
- Head of department (labour, foreign affairs, etc)
- Examines laws, budgets, issues
- "Ministers" member of Cabinet
- Help decide what government policy should be
- Expected to show support for PM and with each other (Cabinet Solidarity)
How do the Cabinet get their position? How long do they stay?
Selected by PM
- Stay asking as theirs regimes are in power
- Until they lose the support to their PM
Who are the Senate in the Federal Government? What are the duties?
- The Upper Class
- Suggest modification to legislation passed by House of Commons
- Checks the House of Commons
- Power to pass and change laws by House of Commons
- Pass bills into laws
- Sit on various committees to address current issues
- People have had doubts about keeping the Senate (represents Ontario and Quebec more)
How do the Senate get their position? How long do they stay?
- Appointed by Governor General, recommended by PM
- Not elected
Can serve until they are 75 years old
Who are the House of Commons in the Federal Government? What are the duties?
- Lower Class
- Members of Parliament
- Elected to serve voters
- Supports their party positions
- Debate issues and government policies
- Discuss and vote
- Some sit on the government benches (belong one support the political party that Forms government)
- Some are from the opposite parties (constructive criticism, alternative policies)
- Participate in debating forums where government presents plans, ideas and bills into laws
- Members of Parliament elect one of their members to be the Speaker of the House
How do the House of Commons get their position? How long do they stay?
They win an election in their riding
They stay until they lose an election
Who are the Supreme Court of Canada in the Federal Government? What are the duties?
- Final court of appeal
- Power to interpret laws and determine penalties
- Made up of justices or judges
- Highest court in Canada
- 9 judges (3 from Ontario, 3 from Quebec, 2 from Western, 1 from Atlantic
- Not involved with the other two branches of government
Who are the Public Service?
- Civil Service or Bureaucracy
- People who conduct the daily business of government
- And government employee
Who are the members of Legislative Assembly?
- Members of Provincial Parliament (MPs)
- Elected to serve the voters
- Follow instructions of their party leader when they vote
- The House considers proposals for new laws (bills), and it passes, changes and repeals laws
- Authorizes provincial taxes
- Any government employee
- Some oppose and some support the political government that forms the government
Who is the Speaker of the House in the House of Commons?
- Responsible for keeping ordering debates
- Members of Parliament elect one of their members as the speaker
Who are the Cabinet of Ministers?
- Members elected by PM to be responsible for different areas of public property
- Chosen from MPs of the PM's party or any MP
- Direct government policy
Who is the Leader of the Official Opposition in the House of Commons?
- The leader of the official opposition usually is e leader of the second largest party in Parliament
- Repenting clear alternative to government policy & suggesting damned,emits to the government's legislative agenda
Who are the Shadow Cabinet in the House of Commons?
- The Leader of Official Opposition selects a Shadow Cabinet
- Take on the same responsibilities as the embers of Cabinet
Who are the Members of Parliament?
- Elected to serve voters
- Usually follow instructions of their political party leader when they vote in the House of Commons
- Some oppose and some support the political party in power
What is a Provincial Legislature?
- Provincial Parliament
- Consist of a Lieutenant- governor that represents the Queen
How do the judges get their position? How long do they stay?
- Judges are judges until they choose to resign or retire
- Responsibility to make fair and unbiased judgements
- Might be chosen for their political views rather than merit or skills
Are Canadians subject to the rule?
Yes, regardless of rank, power, wealth, or position they responsible to obey laws
What is a majority government?
When the party wins the greatest amount of seats that are more than 50% of the parties combined
What is a minority government?
When a political party wins the most seats but is not 50% of the parties combined
What is a coalition government?
When no parties have a majority of seats but two or more parties combine to forma government together
What are the three main parties?
- New Democratic Party
- Liberal Party
- Progressive Conservative Party
How does a party lose "official party" status?
When a party has less than 12 MPs
How does a party win the popular vote?
Winning the majority of votes in a province
What are the consequences of losing "official party" status?
The government provides less funds for the party to campaign, for the office, other expenses, and the amount of questions allotted in the House of Commons
In the 1993 and 1997 federal election, which two parties raised?
- Bloc Québécois
- Reform Party
What is the goal of the Bloc Québécois?
To promote separation of Quebec from the rest of Canada
As the 1990s ended, the Liberal Party held the majority of seats in the House of Commons. Their leader was Jean Chrétien. In which province did most of the Members of Parliament come from?
A) western provinces
D) Atlantic provinces
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
In 2000, which party was the Official Opposing party?
B) Reform Party
D) New Democratic Party
B) Reform Party
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
What is the disadvantage of a minority government?
Needs votes of members of other parties to pass its legislations
What is a bill?
A written proposal for a law
What is an act?
A written law passed by Parliament
What is the main function of Parliament?
To make, change or repeal laws
What are the steps to turning a bill into a law in a province?
- An idea is presented to the legislature (Bill)
- First Reading: the MPP who is proposing a new law introduces it to the other members and explains the objective of it. Then the MPPs decide whether to accept or reject it
- Second Reading: MPPs discuss why or why not it should be a law rough a debate
- Committees of the House: Might take a few days or several months for a small group of MPPs to study the details of each section of the bill. A vote is taken place for each section; can lead to amendments (changes)
- Third Reading: last debate and then the speaker calls for a final vote to make it into a law or not
- Royal Assent: approved by Lieutenant Governor, their name is signed and given a Great Seal if Ontario is put on the bill changing it to a law
How is a bill changed to a law in a federal government?
- An idea is put forth
- Idea is explained to cabinet and the cabinet either approves or disapproves
- Research is done
- Lawyers wrote a draft bill
- Cabinet examines the bill
- Cabinet and caucus approves the bill
- First reading: introduced to legislature
- Second Reading: legislature debates about the principals of the bill and the committee examines the bill
- Public input into the bill
- Hearing held and suggestions made and the committee discuss the amendments
- Bill is amended and a third reading is held
- Final vote taken
- Senate examines debates and amends bills from House of Commons
- Bill is passed by the Senate and sent to Governor General for royal assent
- Bill becomes law
What are some ways of taking action to create change?
- Write letters to editors or government representatives
- Hold public meetings
- Sign petitions
- Advertise using flyers, posters, newsletter
- Refuse to buy forma certain place or country
- Refuse to obey a law
- Refuse to pay some of your taxes
- Participate in demonstrations
- Put yourself in between people or groups trying to harm others
- Occupy land being misused
What is the Political Spectrum?
A scale that shows where parties or people stand when it comes to communism or fascism
Which wing represents Fascism on the Political Spectrum?
Which wing represents communism on the Political Spectrum?
Where should a "normal" person fall on the Political Spectrum?
What does the left Wong of the Political Spectrum mean?
- Equal opportunity
- Support change to improve welfare of citizens
- Government Should play a larger role in lives
- Law and order are important
- More freedom to individuals and less power to the police
What does the right wing of the Political Spectrum mean?
- Different opportunities
- More conservative
- Tradition is important, change should be treated with caution
- Government should play a smaller role
- Private businesses should make sure needs are met
- Emphasis of law and order to protect society and its tradition
- Less freedom and mor power to the police
What does the centre of the Political Spectrum mean?
- Tradition is important
- Change is only supported when people want it
- Government should only pay a role to improve the lives of citizens
- Law and order are important to encourage and protect individuals
What will happen if a party is too far to the right or left of a Political Spectrum?
The two ends will meet and the government will have too much control over the citizens
Discuss about the Conservative Party.
- Falls centre right
- Favour small government, individual freedom, and less government intervention
Discuss about the Liberal Party.
- Falls centre or centre right
- Favoured balance budgets, socially progressive stances on issues like same sex marriage
Discuss about the New Democratic Party.
- Falls left
- Favours larger roles for government in terms of economy, more government, government-funded social programs, and progressive social policies
Discuss about the Green Party.
- Since 2006
- Falls left (environmental and social issues), falls centre (economics policies)
To be a Canadian, you must be
A) a particular race
B) a particular colour
C) a particular religion
D) non of the above
- D) non of the above
- You have to share a particular set of values from living in or democracy
Why do people want to come to Canada?
- They believe Canada will provide them and their family new opportunities
- Avoid political persecution
Why is Canada's Constitution different from the American Constitution or British Constitution?
- The American constitution is mostly written down
- The British Constitution is mostly unwritten
- The Canadian Constitution is both written and unwritten
Canada's Constitution outlined in the Canada Act 1982 includes...?
- Constitution Act 1867 or BNA act
- All amendments to the British North American Act
- The acts that bring British Columbia, Manitoba, PEI, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland into
- Statute of Westminster, 1931
- Constitutional Act, 1982 : Part 1: Charter of Rights and Freedoms
The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms came into effect in 1982 as part of the Canadian Constitution, it applies to Canadian Citizens, permanent residents or both?
What are the 6 rights in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom?
- Fundamental freedoms (conscience, religion, thought, belief, peaceful assembly, association)
- Mobility Rights (right to work and live in any province)
- Legal Rights (not to be imprisoned or arrested for no good reason, right to a lawyer, to be claimed innocent, not to be treated cruelly)
- Equality rights (not to be discriminated by race, nationality, origin, age, sex, mental)
- Official languages of Canada
- Minority language and educational rights (can be educated in English or French)
The right to vote, the right to be a candidate in the federal or provincial elections, and the rig to leave the country and return is only available to
A) Canadian citizens
B) Both a and b
C) temporary staying citizens
D) none of the above
A) Canadian citizens
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
Does the Constitution Act of 1982 mention any key elements of of how the government works? The roles of the PM, the Cabinet, political parties, etc?
- It is unwritten definitions that come I'm the British parliamentary tradition
- The BNA Act 1867 states Canada's Constitution is "similar in principal to that of the United Kingdom"
- Government in Britain = parliamentary system
- Many institutions in Canada are based on those on Britain
- Unwritten are as important as written
What is the BNA, 1867?
- Separates Canada from Britain
- Distributed power to make between federal and provincial governments
- Only British can amend or change the BNA act, 1867
- People wanted to change the Constitution without permission from from Britain
When was the power to amend the Constitution transferred to Canada?
April 17 1982
When was the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom introduced?
How do we calculate Proportional Representation?
Total number of seats X percentage of population vote
What is Civil Disobedience?
- When someone refuses to obey or follow laws they think is unjust or unfair
- To get attention from the government
So has practiced civil disobedience in the past?
- Henry Thoreau (believed a majority rule existed because it is more powerful than minority)
- Mahatma Gandhi
- Martin Luther King
What are the three principals of Civil disobedience?
- 1. Civil disobedience should not involve violence
- 2. Civil disobedience is directed against laws that are seriously harmful; harm is greater than benefit
- 3. Must take responsibility for their actions
Why do only a fe activist try civil disobedience?
Results may lead to being arrested, injured, or Enid up with a police record
What are Interest/Protest Groups?
- Organized group of individuals with common interests and concerns
- Want to pressure or persuade decision makers to promote their common interests, change government policies
What strategies do Interest/Pressure groups use?
- Pressure and persuasion
- Writing letters
What are Lobby Groups?
- Highly organized pressure groups
- To influence decision makers in organized manner, through direct persuasion, discussion or attention
What strategies do Lobby groups use?
- One on one phone calls
- Letter/phone campaigns
- Take public to gain support
- Hire lawyers to stop government action
- Raise funds
What are Protest Groups?
- Group of activists who demonstrate together
- Concerned with social justice and find they need more forceful actions to achieve goals
- Draw attention to their cause
What strategies do Protest Groups use?
- Public demonstration
- Road block
- More forceful actions
Who do protest, lobby and interest/pressure groups fight for?
- New legislation
- Move airports and industries
- Establish parks and wildlife reserves
- Reduce taxes
- Control pollution
- Provide more government funding
What are examples of the Monarchy in our daily lives?
- The Canadian Forces (HMCS- her majesty Canadian Ship)
- Coats of Arm and Official Badges (uniforms)
- The Courts and Royal Commission
- Crown Lands and The King's Highways (parks, King's highway, and other roads)
- Currency and Coinage (queen's head on back on coin)
- Holidays and Religious Observances (Victoria Day)
- Honours and Decorations
- Pictures of the Queen
- Postage Stamps
- Queen in Parliament (bills can't be passed without Royal Assent)
- The Royal Anthem
- Royal Patronage and Destination Royal (ROM)
What is First Past the Post?
When party with the most amount of votes win the election
What is the Proportional Representation System?
When you can't vote for individuals in an area but instead all the names and parties are dismayed in one ballot
What is the FPTP-PR system?
Voters cast two votes: one for a representative and one for the party of their choice
What is the Preferential Ballot system?
- Used in Australia
- Citizens vote for their top 3 choices for candidates
- Ensures the winner ensures a majority of the votes
What are the advantages of FFTP? (First past the Post)
- It's stability
- More majority governments so their tasks they set out get accomplished
What are the disadvantages of FPTP? (First past the Post)
- Candidate can win election by having the most votes
- Does not always mean majority of votes
- Some argue its not democratic (does not represent total population)
What are the advantages of Proportional Representative?
Allows for accurate representing of the total population
What are the disadvantages of Proportional Representative?
Voters do not have a local representative so the local issues will never be represented
What are the advantages with FPTP & PR? (First past the Post & proportional Representation)
Seeks to eliminate the problem of the PR by giving people both local and national representation
What are the disadvantages of FPTP & PR? (First past the Post & proportional Representation)
Potential conflict between the national representative (president) and the head of local representative (PM)
What are the advantages of Preferential Ballot?
System ensures that there is a majority governments that best reflects the desires of all citizens
What a the disadvantages of the Preferential Ballot?
- Te elected officials do not reflect the candidates that individuals want
- If a voter wanted one individual, the candidate MIT not even appear in government
What does the Educational Act say?
The principal has the duty to maintain proper order and discipline in the school
What does the Young Offenders Act?
- Young people have the right to be heard in the courts and to participate in the processes that lead to decisions that affect them
- Special guarantees of their rights and freedoms
- Age of 18 cannot be named in public
What was the Case of R v. MRM
- A 13 year old student at a junior high school in Nova Scotia in 1998
- The vice principal was told that MRM was selling drugs on school property by reliable sources
- The night of the dance when MRM arrived, the VP called the police and told the students to accompany him to his office. He warned them that he was going to search them. Police officer observed the interview. The VP found the marijuana in his pocket and the police confirmed it was. He was under arrest.
- At the trial at the Nova Scotia provincial court, the judge said the drug was obtained in a manner that contravened MRM's charter right to protection form unreasonable search and seized. The charge was dropped.
- Second trial at the Supreme Court of Canada
- New guidelines for school searches were
What does it mean to be a global citizen?
- Supporting international trade and investment (large corporations sell their products around the world, use resources form many parts of the globe, benefit from trade agreements between nations)
- Being responsible for our Earth, it's resources and fellow citizens (concern for impact of technology and dusty on the environment, global warming and rainforest destruction are a threat to humanity, need to be active in order to save the world from ecological disaster)
- Accepting the responsibility to ensure that all people of the world can live in peace, enjoying an adequate quality of life (concerned about poverty, inequality and justice)
- There are many people who believe that as global citizens, we have the responsible to protect the human rigs of people Round the world
- Aware of the wider world and has a sense of their own role as a world citizen
- Respect and values diversity
- Understands how the world works economically, politically, socially, culturally. Technologically, and environmentally
- Outraged by social injustice and participates contributes to the community at a range of levels from the local to the global
- Willing to act to make the world a more equitable and sustainable place
- Takes responsibility for his or her own actions
What are Human Rights?
- Universal rights based on what we generally believe to be right or wrong, which applies to all people in all countries of all times
- Based on mortality : what we generally believe is right and wrong
- Some are guaranteed by law in some countries (right of freedom of speech in canada)
- Generally believe it applies to everyone, in any part of the world, at all times
What is the Amnesty International?
- Uses political, non-violent means to free prisoners of conscience who have been detained for their beliefs or because of their ethnic origin, sex, colour or language
- Pressures governments for fair & prompt trials for political prisoners abolishment of the death penalty, torture, and cruel treatment of prisoners
- It also investigates and campaigns for the end of arbitrary executions and disappearances of people presumed murdered by brutal and anti democratic
What issues contribute to poverty?
- Environmental degradation
- Lack of health care
- Lack of education
- Diseases such as AIDs
- Unfair global trading structures
- Gender inequality
Who are the United Nations?
- International organization made up of almost every nation in the world (191 countries)
- The purpose is to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, to cooperate in solving international problems, to promote respect for human rights, and to be a centre for a harmonizing the actions of nations.
- Has many programs to improve the social and economic conditions of people around the world
What is the CIDA?
- The Canadian International Development Agency
- Federal agency in charge for planning and implementing most of Canada's development cooperation programs in order to reduce poverty and to contribute to a more secure equitable and prosperous world
What are the Millennium Development Goals?
- Goals set out by the United Nations in 2000
- CIDA and other develop agencies around the world are working together to achieve the goals
What are the Millennium Development Goals that want to be achieved by 2015?
- 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
- 2. Achieve universal primary education
- 3. Promote gender equality and empower women
- 4. Reduce child mortality
- 5. Improve maternal health
- 6. Combat HIV/ Aids, malaria and other diseases
- 7. Ensure environment sustainability
- 8. Develops a global partnership for development
What is free trade?
- It's a trading system that provides fair to rices for producers
- Farmers in developing countries receive extremely low prices for their crops due to middle men taking most of the profits
- Fair trade aims to improve the lives of rural
- Better environment and human rights
What is Transfair?
A fair trade certification organization in canada
What are legal rights?
- Rights that are made by laws of a country and upheld by the justice system
- Differ from country to country
What are the two significant documents developed under direction of the United Nations?
- Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- Declaration of the Rights of the Child
Why is December 10 International Human Rights Day?
Because the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was declared to the world by the United Nations on December 10, 1948
What is the United Nation's definition of Genocide?
Any means of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group
- Examples are
- Killing members of a group
- Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part
- Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group
- Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group
When was the definition of Genocide written?
- December 9, 1948
- After the holocaust