Microbial World (1)

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Microbial World (1)
2013-06-15 23:17:22
UNC MED Microbio

UNC MED Microbio
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  1. Prion
    A NON-LIVING, protein particle capable of transforming normal brain proteins.
  2. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE)
    Diseases cause by prions that affect the brain and nervous system.
  3. Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease (vCJD)
    Disease obtained from eating infected meats; causes fatal damage to the brain.
  4. Virus
    NON-LIVING, Obligate intracellular parasites that takes over the host cell machinery to replicate.
  5. Two Major Groups of Viruses
    • DNA viruses
    • RNA viruses
    • (not both!)
  6. DNA viruses
    Replicate by making mRNA from the viral DNA and then taking over the host cell machinery to make proteins.
  7. RNA viruses
    • (+)sense can be directly translated into proteins.
    • (-)sense serve as a template for mRNA production
  8. Bacteria
    • Prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms with a wide variety of shapes that contains a peptidoglycan cell wall, and reproduced by binary fission. 
    • ex. E.coli
  9. Fungi
    • Eukaryotic cellular organisms with a true nucleus, that has a chitin cell wall, releases spores, and reproduces by budding. 
    • ex. Yeast (Candida albicans)
  10. Dimorphic Fungi
    Fungi that grow as single cells (yeast) at body temperature and as multi-celled filaments (mold) at ambient temperature.
  11. Aspergillus
    Common fungus that "affects EVERYONE" and if found everywhere in the environment.
  12. Yeast
    • Unicellular fungi that reproduce by budding
    • ex. Candida, Cryptococcus
  13. Mold
    • Multicellular fungi with filamentous structures (hyphae) that reproduce by sporulation
    • ex. Aspergillus, Zygomycetes
  14. Hyphae
    Long, branching, filamentous structures of fungi.
  15. Septate
    Refers to cross-walled hyphae
  16. Aseptate
    Refers to hyphae withOUT cross-walls.
  17. Neutropenic
    • Having a low neutrophil count.
    • w/ Bone Marrow Transplant, most susceptible to fungal infection
  18. Classes of fungal Infections
    • Superficial
    • Self-Limited
    • Invasive
  19. Superficial Infections
    • Infections of the skin and mucous membranes. 
    • ex. Thrush, Candida, Vaginitis
  20. Self-Limited Infections
    • Immunocompetent infections causing mild flu-like illness.
    • ex. Cryptococcus, dimorphics
  21. Invasive Infections
    • Life threatening infections in diabetics or immunocompromised individuals
    • ex. Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, Pneumocystis juroveci
  22. Pneumocystis juroveci
    Invasive fungal infection that led to the discovery of HIV/AIDS.
  23. Parasite
    Microorganisms with complex life cycles that live on a host and derive nutrients from them.
  24. Giardia
    Most common parasitic infection. Associated with water contamination. Exist as cysts int he environment and pathogenic Trophozites in the body.
  25. Malaria
    Parasitic infection with life cycles in both mosquitoes and humans.
  26. Cystercerosis
    Parasitic infection obtained via ingestion of food contaminated with human feces or contaminated pork.
  27. Protozoan
    Single-celled parasites
  28. Helminth
    Multicellular parasites (visible without microscope)