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A NON-LIVING, protein particle capable of transforming normal brain proteins.
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE)
Diseases cause by prions that affect the brain and nervous system.
Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease (vCJD)
Disease obtained from eating infected meats; causes fatal damage to the brain.
NON-LIVING, Obligate intracellular parasites that takes over the host cell machinery to replicate.
Two Major Groups of Viruses
- DNA viruses
- RNA viruses
- (not both!)
Replicate by making mRNA from the viral DNA and then taking over the host cell machinery to make proteins.
- (+)sense can be directly translated into proteins.
- (-)sense serve as a template for mRNA production
- Prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms with a wide variety of shapes that contains a peptidoglycan cell wall, and reproduced by binary fission.
- ex. E.coli
- Eukaryotic cellular organisms with a true nucleus, that has a chitin cell wall, releases spores, and reproduces by budding.
- ex. Yeast (Candida albicans)
Fungi that grow as single cells (yeast) at body temperature and as multi-celled filaments (mold) at ambient temperature.
Common fungus that "affects EVERYONE" and if found everywhere in the environment.
- Unicellular fungi that reproduce by budding
- ex. Candida, Cryptococcus
- Multicellular fungi with filamentous structures (hyphae) that reproduce by sporulation
- ex. Aspergillus, Zygomycetes
Long, branching, filamentous structures of fungi.
Refers to cross-walled hyphae
Refers to hyphae withOUT cross-walls.
- Having a low neutrophil count.
- w/ Bone Marrow Transplant, most susceptible to fungal infection
Classes of fungal Infections
- Infections of the skin and mucous membranes.
- ex. Thrush, Candida, Vaginitis
- Immunocompetent infections causing mild flu-like illness.
- ex. Cryptococcus, dimorphics
- Life threatening infections in diabetics or immunocompromised individuals
- ex. Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, Pneumocystis juroveci
Invasive fungal infection that led to the discovery of HIV/AIDS.
Microorganisms with complex life cycles that live on a host and derive nutrients from them.
Most common parasitic infection. Associated with water contamination. Exist as cysts int he environment and pathogenic Trophozites in the body.
Parasitic infection with life cycles in both mosquitoes and humans.
Parasitic infection obtained via ingestion of food contaminated with human feces or contaminated pork.
Multicellular parasites (visible without microscope)