Antimicrobials (3)

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  1. classes of beta-lactams
    • penicillin (ex. oxacillin);
    • cephalosporin (ex. cephalexin);
    • carbapenem (ex. imipenem);
    • monobactam (ex. aztreonam)
  2. beta-lactam
    • binds to penicillin binding proteins in periplasmic space;
    • act by blocking peptidoglycan cross-linking, resulting in weakened cell wall;
    • organism lyses;
    • organism must be actively growing for bactericidal activity
  3. vancomycin
    • extremely large glycopeptide molecule;
    • only active against gram + organisms;
    • prevents incorporation of murein monomer into peptidoglycan layer
  4. aminoglycosides
    • interferes with translation of mRNA on 30S ribosome blocking protein synthesis;
    • actively transported into bacteria - requires aerobic growth;
    • bactericidal;
    • synergistic with cell wall active agents;
    • ex. gentamincin & tobramycin;
    • ototoxic & nephrotoxic
  5. macrolides
    • binds to 50S ribosome;
    • blocks chain elongation resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis;
    • bacteriostatic;
    • broad spectrum;
    • limited activity against enteric gram - bacilli;
    • azithromycin (Z-Pac) widely used for community acquired pneumonia
  6. tetracyclin
    • binds to 30S ribosome;
    • blocks binding of tRNA;
    • inhibits protein synthesis;
    • bacteriostatic;
    • broad spectrum;
    • can also be used for malaria prophylaxis
  7. fluoroquinolones
    • blocks DNA unwinding by DNA gyrase;
    • inhibits DNA replication;
    • commonly used to treat UTIs and community acquired pneumonia;
    • ex. ciprofloxacin & levofloxacin
  8. trimethyoprim-sulfamethoxazole
    • synergistic drug combination;
    • inhibits pathway important in synthesis of purine nucleotide resulting in inhibition of DNA synthesis;
    • commonly used to treat UTIs and CA-MRSA skin and soft tissue infections;
    • active against pneumocystis and selected parasites;
    • developed in RTP
  9. colistin
    • large cyclic cationic polypeptide;
    • act by disrupting cell membrane;
    • last line of defense against MDR-gram - bacilli infection;
    • not active against gram + and selected gram -;
    • highly toxic especially nephrotoxic;
    • difficult to determine resistance in vitro;
    • resistance can develop during therapy
Card Set:
Antimicrobials (3)
2013-06-16 03:18:11
UNC MED Microbio

UNC MED Microbio
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