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all kidney stones form in alkaline urine except what 2
- uric acid stones
- cysteine stones
How are uric acid stones different from all other stones?
uric acid stones form in acidic ph and they are radiolusent on xray of abdomen/pelvis
rx for uric acid stones?
alkalanize urine by K citrate/allopurinol/low protein diet
rx for minimal change diseasse?
what is the most common cause of gastric outlet obstruction?
prepyloric peptic ulcer causing fibrosis of the pylorus and then causeing intractable vomiting
what chemical may be used to determine ovulatory reserve?
formula to determine respiratory compensation in metabolic acidosis?
- 1.5 X HCO3 + 8
- 0.9 x HCO3 +16
no passage of bowel or gas and hyperactive bowel sounds, dx?
what is amblyopia
most common cause of amblyopia?
decreased visual acuity in eyes
anserine vs prepatellar bursitis?
- prepatellar is on top of the patell
- anserine is anteriomedial tibi
most common cause of constipation?
difference between absence seizure and complex partial seizure?
partial complex has post ictal confusion
what kind of eye pathology does optic neuritis produce?
- vision loss
- color change
- afferent pupillary defect
rx for solitary breast cancer metastasis?
- chemo or hormone therapy
what are the dietary recommmendations for renal calculi?
- decreased sodium
- decreased protein/oxalate
- increased calcium
- increased hydration
can hereditary spherocytosis get aplastic crisis?
what kind of muscle changes can hypothyroid produce?
everything from rhabdomyolysis- high ck to hypertrophy
what drug gives the side effect of oral ulcers
splenomegaly and granulocytopenia
ra + lung nodules
first line rx for endometeriosis?
- leuprolide--gnrh antagonist or danazol
scheduled doctors visits are recommended fro what disorder?
- somatization disorder
what are two bacteria you can get from ticks?
- francisella tularemia
- borrelia burgdorferi
what two gram + cocci have no hemolysis and grow in bile nad nacl 6.5?
what other additional testing should be done in a pt with pid
cavernous vs strawberry hemangioma?
- cavenrous is blue and has blood vessels
- strawberry is red
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