Antibiotic drugs

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Author:
jenafer
ID:
22381
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Antibiotic drugs
Updated:
2010-06-07 22:25:16
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antibiotic penicillin inhibition
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Description:
description of antibiotics used and against which bacteria
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  1. what is a disinfectant that can be used on living tissue
    antiseptic
  2. what disinfectant kills bacteria but doesnt harm the host infected
    antibiotic
  3. how can an antibiotic target a bacteria that is obligately intracellular parasites (such as chlamydia and rickettsia).
    it must enter the cells in order to target these gram-bacteria
  4. why cant tetracycline target mycobacterium
    because mycobacterium has a acid fast cell wall
  5. name three parts of the spectrum of antimicrobial activity from antibiotics
    • 1- broad
    • 2- narrow
    • 3- super
  6. what are bactericidal antimicrobials
    antimicrobials that kill microbes
  7. what are bacteriostatic antimicrobials
    antimicrobials that inhibits growth
  8. name the ways antimicrobial drugs can inhibit microbial life in 5 ways
    • 1- replication
    • 2- transcription
    • 3- translation
    • 4- synthesis of metabolites
    • 5- break plasma membrane
  9. what is replication
    time when bacteria can duplicate DNA
  10. what is transcription
    converting DNA to RNA
  11. name three antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis
    • chloramphenicol
    • streptomycin
    • tetracycline
  12. what does penicillin do?
    inhibit cell wall synthesis
  13. name the natural penicillin
    • penicillin G (IV)
    • penicillin V (oral)
  14. antibiotic modified in labs to work against gram + bacteria and overcome resistance
    semi-synthetic penicillin
  15. what do you call a enzyme activates penicillin
    penicillinase
  16. name penicillin inhibitors that break molecules of penicillin and become resistant to it.
    B-lactum penicillin antibiotics
  17. name the different cephalosporins
    • first generation
    • second generation
    • third generation
  18. name polypeptides
    • bacitracin
    • vancomycin
  19. bacitracin works against
    gram + bacteria
  20. what is a glycopeptide and works against S. aureus when its resistant to penicillin
    vancomycin
  21. what antibiotics are used against mycobacteria
    antimycobacteria antibiotics
  22. which antibiotic is broad spectrum but can lead to opportunistic infections
    tetracycline
  23. which antibiotic can injure the plasma membrane of bacteria
    polymyxin B
  24. which antibiotic inhibits RNA synthesis and works against mycobacteria
    rifamycin
  25. which antibiotics are competitive inhibitors
    sulfonamides sulfa-drugs
  26. why aren't antifungals antibiotics?
    because virus' aren't technically alive
  27. which tests are used to test
    • disk-diffusion method
    • E test
  28. the E test tests what?
    the concentration of antibiotic and uses minimum inhibitation level
  29. how are bacteria resistant to antibiotics?
    • they block entry
    • they inactivate bacterial enzymes
  30. what is it called when two drugs work better in synchronization rather then working alone
    syngerism
  31. what is it called when 2 or more drugs cancel the effect of both
    antagonism
  32. what is the term for a drug that kills harmful microbes without damaging the host
    selective toxicity
  33. what year did Fleming discover penicillin
    1928
  34. what produces penicillin
    penicillium
  35. when was the first clinical trials of penicillin
    1940
  36. define a group of over 50 chemical related antibiotics which all have a common base
    penicillin
  37. what is a penicilinase resistant penicillin
    methicillin
  38. what is extended-spectrum penicillins
    ampicillin
  39. which antibiotic inhibits mycolic acid synthesis
    isoniazid (NH)
  40. what are broad spectrum antibiotics which are used to treat UTIs, STDs, and against intracellular bacteria; and it does this by interfering with tRNA attachment. These antibiotics lead to disturbing normal flora and lead to superinfections such as candida.
    tetracyclines
  41. which antibiotic is topical and combined with bacitracin and neomycin in over the counter preparation.
    polymyxin B
  42. which antibiotic inhibits RNA synthesis and is antituberculosis
    rifamycin
  43. which antibiotic is inhibits DNA gyrase and works against UTIs.
    quinolones and fluoroquinolones
  44. which group of antibiotics are sulfonamides (sulfa drugs) categorized with?
    quinolones and fluoroquinolones
  45. which antibiotics inhibit folic acid synthesis and is broad spectrum
    sulfonamides or sulfa-drugs
  46. name a antiviral drug
    anti-HIV drug
  47. an area where growth is inhibited
    zone of inhibition
  48. define MIC
    minimal inhibitory concentration
  49. define MBC
    minimal bactericidal concentration
  50. MBC can lead to antibiotic resistances because
    the of the minimum concentration is allowing the cells to mutate
  51. four mechanisms of antibiotic resistance
    • 1- enzymatic destruction of drug
    • 2- prevention of penetration of drug
    • 3- alteration of drugs target site
    • 4- rapid ejection of the drug
  52. resistance genes are often on ... or ... that can be transfered between bacteria
    plasmids or transporons
  53. name the 5 misuses of antibiotics
    • 1- using outdated antibiotics
    • 2- using antibiotics for minor conditions such as the common cold
    • 3- using them in animal feed
    • 4- failing to use the entire prescribed regimen
    • 5- using someone else's antibiotics.
  54. define study of dz
    pathology
  55. define study of the cause of a dz
    etiology
  56. developement of a disease
    pathogenesis
  57. colonization of the body by pathogens
    infection
  58. an abnormal state in which the body isnt functioning as normally
    disease
  59. how long does transient microflora be present for
    days, weeks, or months
  60. how long can normal microflora be present for?
    all your life
  61. the relationship between normal microbiota and the host
    symbiosis
  62. when one organism is benefited while the other remains uninfected
    commensalism
  63. when host and parasite organism benefit eachother mutually
    mutualism
  64. when one organism is benefiting and the expense of another
    parasitism
  65. define competition between microbes
    microbial antagonism
  66. name 3 ways normal microflora protects the host
    • 1- they occupy niches that pathogens can
    • 2- they produce acids for us
    • 3- they produce bacteriocins
  67. what are live microbes applied to or ingested into the body with the intention to exert a beneficial effect
    probiotics
  68. define a change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of dz
    a symptom
  69. define a change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of dz
    a sign
  70. define a specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a dz
    syndrome
  71. a dz that is easily spread from one host to another
    communicable or contagious dz
  72. a dz that is not easily spread form one host to another
    non communicable dz
  73. fraction of a population that contracts a dz during a specific time
    incidence
  74. a dz that occurs occasionally in a population
    sporadic dz
  75. dz acquired by many host in a given area in a short time
    epidemic disease
  76. worldwide epidemic
    pandemic
  77. immunity in most of a population
    herd immunity
  78. symptoms develop rapidly
    acute dz
  79. when symptoms develop slowly
    chronic dz
  80. when symptoms develop between chronic and acute dz
    subacute dz
  81. dz with a period of now symptoms when the patient is inactive
    latent dz
  82. when pathogens are limited to a small area of the body
    local infection
  83. an infection throughout the body
    systemic infection
  84. a systemic infection that began as a local infection
    focal infection
  85. presence of bacteria in the blood
    bacteremia
  86. growth of bacteria in the blood
    septicemia
  87. presence of toxins in the blood
    toxemia
  88. presence of virus in the blood
    viremia
  89. acute infection that causes the initial illness
    primary infection
  90. opportunistic infection after a primary infection
    secondary infection
  91. having no noticeable signs or symptoms to a dz
    subclinical dz
  92. kinds of vectors
    • mechanical
    • biological
  93. infections that are those that originate or occur in a hospital or hospital like setting
    nosocomial infections
  94. incidence of a specific notifiable dz
    morbidity
  95. mortality
    deaths from notifiable dz
  96. ability to cause dz
    pathogenicity
  97. extent of pathogenicity
    virulence
  98. ID50 is...
    the ability for a drug to infect 50% of the test population
  99. LD50 is...
    the ability for a drug to kill 50% of the test population
  100. what 4 things affect virulence
    • 1- penetration host defenses
    • 2- capsules
    • 3- enzymes
    • 4- antigenic variation
  101. Antigenic variations do what
    alter surface proteins
  102. what 4 factors influence antigenic variation
    • 1- coagulase
    • 2- kinase
    • 3- collagenase
    • 4- IgA proteases
  103. enzyme that coagulates blood
    coagulase
  104. enzyme that digests fibrin clots
    kinase
  105. enzyme that hydrolyzes collagen
    collagenase
  106. enzyme that destroys IgA antibodies
    IgA proteases
  107. ability to produce toxins, a underlying by which many bacterial pathogens produce dz
    toxigenesis
  108. name 5 types of bacterial toxins
    • liposaccharides
    • cell-associated liposaccharides (LPS)
    • proteins
    • endotoxins
    • exotoxins
  109. substance that contribute to pathogenicity
    toxin
  110. ability to produce a toxin
    toxigenicity
  111. presence of toxin the hosts blood that can cause serious and fatal effects
    toxemia
  112. inactivated toxin used in a vaccine
    toxoid
  113. antibodies against a specific toxin
    antitoxin

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