Anatomy 4-8

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Author:
rrrramxss
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223836
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Anatomy 4-8
Updated:
2013-06-14 11:45:03
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anatomy
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chapters 4-8
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  1. Tissue
    A group of cells similar in structure and function.
  2. Epithelial tissue
    • Continuous sheet
    • Polarity
    • Basement membrane (basal and reticular)
    • Avascular.
  3. Simple Squamous
    • Easy exchange of substance (diffusion)
    • Capillary, air sac in lung, serosa
  4. Simple Cuboidal
    • Secretion and absorption
    • Kidney tuble
  5. Simple columnar
    • Secretion and absorption
    • may have goblets and CILIA
    • intestine
  6. Pseudostratified
    • Secretion and absorption
    • may have cilia
    • trachea
  7. Stratified squamous
    • protection
    • keratin or no keratin
    • epidermis of skin & oral cavity
  8. Transitional
    • cell change shape, provide flexibility
    • lining of urinary bladder.
  9. Endocrine gland
    • No ducts
    • release hormones into blood stream
  10. Exocrine gland
    Most release secretion to surface or lumen through ducts
  11. Merocrine Gland
    • Exocytosis
    • pancreas
  12. Holocrine Gland
    • cell rupture
    • sebaceous gland
  13. Connective tissues
    • ground substance (matrix)
    • fibers
    • cells
  14. LOOSE FIBROUS: Areolar
    • fibroblast
    • collagen fiber
    • universal packaging
  15. LOOSE FIBROUS: Adipose
    • fibroblast
    • adipocyte
    • store energry
    • insulation
    • in skin
  16. LOOSE FIBROUS: Reticular
    • fibroblast
    • reticular fiber
    • in lymphoid organs
  17. DENSE FIBROUS: Irregular
    • fibroblast
    • irregular packed collagen fiber
    • in skin
  18. DENSE FIBROUS: Regular
    • fibroblast
    • parallel colagen iber
    • poor blod supply
    • in tendon
    • ligament
  19. SENSE FIBROUS: Elastic
    • more parallel elastic fibers
    • in aorta
  20. Cartilage
    • Chondrocyte in lacuna
    • avascular
    • no nerve fibers
    • apposition and interstital growth
  21. Hyaline cartilage
    • most common
    • in articular surface
  22. Elastic cartilage
    • most elastic fibers
    • in outer ear
  23. Fibrocartilage
    • parallel collagen fibers
    • in intervertebral disc
  24. Bone
    The connective tissue with solid and rigid ground substance
  25. Blood
    The connective tissue with liquid ground substance
  26. What is the most abundant protein in the body?
    Collagen
  27. Smooth Muscle
    • spindle
    • one nucleus
    • nostriation
    • involuntary
  28. Skeletal muscle
    • fiber
    • multinuclei
    • striation
    • voluntary
  29. Cardiac muscle
    • branched
    • one nucleus
    • striation
    • involuntary
    • intercalaed disc
    • gap junction
  30. Neuron
    • Cell body
    • axon
    • dendrites
  31. Mucosa
    • Linging interal spaces that have opening to outside
    • Epithelium and Lamina propria
  32. Serosa
    • Lines ventral cavities and organs
    • Simple squamous & areolar
  33. Regeneration
    produce original tissue
  34. Fibrosis
    replace damaged tissue with scar tissue
  35. Can cardiac muslce and neurons regenerate?
    No
  36. Regeneration of skeletal muscle & cartilage?
    Weak
  37. regeneration of smooth muscle and dense regular?
    moderate
  38. regeneration of epithelium and bone?
    high
  39. Organ
    • a differentiated structure (as a heart, kidney,
    • leaf, or stem) consisting of cells and tissues and performing some specific function
  40. Organ system
    a group of organs that work together to perform a certain task
  41. Functions of the skin
    • Protection
    • blood reservoir
    • excretion
    • regulate temp
    • vitamin D
  42. Are there blood vessels in the epidermis?
    No
  43. Basal
    • Cell proliferation
    • produce melanin
    • sensory receptor
  44. Spinosum
    Phagosytosis
  45. Granulosum
    produce glycolipid to prevent water loss
  46. Lucidum
    • only in certain area
    • dead
    • keratin
  47. Corneum
    dead keratin
  48. What makes thick skin?
    Stratum Corneum
  49. Dermis
    • gland
    • hair follicle
    • phagocytes
    • nerve
    • blood vessel
  50. Papillary
    Loose connective
  51. reticular
    Dense connective
  52. What makes fingerprints?
    papillary layer
  53. Eccrine sweat gland
    • most numerous
    • palm
    • sole
    • forhead
  54. Appocrine sweat gland
    • axillary
    • genital area
    • active at puberty
  55. Ceruminous gland
    earwax
  56. mammary gland
    milk
  57. Which gland is associated with hair follicles
    • apocrine sweat gland
    • sebaceous gland
  58. Gland responsible for the formation of acne?
    Sebaceous
  59. Cyanosis (bluish purple skin color)
    Heart/Lung disorder
  60. Erythema skin color (rosey cheeks)
    Hypertention, inflammtion
  61. Pallor (pale skin color)
    • Anemic
    • low blood pressure
  62. Jaundice (yellow skin color)
    liver disorder
  63. Bronzing
    • addison's disease
    • pituitary tumor
  64. Hair shaft structure:
    • medulla
    • cortex
    • cuticle
  65. What is hair matrix?
    Hair growth
  66. What is hair papilla?
    Connective tissue/blood vessels
  67. Arrector pili
    • cause goose bumps
    • hair standing
  68. How does skin participate in bone health?
    Vitamin D!
  69. RULES for recognizing signs of melanoma?
    • A (asymmetry)
    • B (border irregularity)
    • C (Color)
    • D (diameter)
    • E (elevation)
  70. 1st degree burn
    Epidermis
  71. 2nd degree burn
    epidermis and top of dermis
  72. 3rd degree burn
    • epidermis and dermis damaged.
    • usually need skin grafting.
  73. Bone markings
    • Trochanter
    • process
    • head
    • facet
    • condoyle
    • foramen
    • meatus
    • fossa
  74. Osteon structure
    • lamellae
    • osteosytes
    • central canal
    • perforating canals
    • canaliculi
  75. Compact bone
    • osteon
    • osteocytes in lacunae
  76. Spongy bone
    • trabeculae
    • red bone marrow
    • osteocytes in lacunae
  77. Periosteum and endosteum
    Endosteum and inner layer of periosteum contain osteoblast for bone deposit and osteoclast for bone resorption
  78. Ossification
    Bone formation
  79. Intramenbranous ossification
    • membrane of fibrous connective tissue as model
    • flat bones and clavicle
  80. Endochondral ossification
    • Hyaline cartilage as model
    • long bones
  81. describe how long bones grow in length and width
    • Length: epiphyseal plate & interstitial
    • Width: peristeum, endosteum, appositional.
  82. Process of fracture healing:
    Hematoma > fibrocartilage callus > bony callus (spongy) > remodeling (compact)
  83. Osteomalacia
    Soft bone (inadequate minerals)
  84. Osteoporosis
    Low bone density
  85. Avascular necrosis
    Bone death (lack of blood supply)
  86. Osteogenesis imperfacta
    Brittle bone
  87. Axial skeleton
    Head
  88. appendicular skeleton
    • arms
    • scapular
    • legs
    • coxal
  89. Cranial bones that sphenoid connects to
    All
  90. Facial bones that maxillae connects to
    All EXCEPT mandible
  91. Bones that form the orbit
    • Frontal
    • maxilla
    • lacrimal
    • zygomatic
    • sphenoid
    • ethmoid
    • palatine
  92. rood of nasal cavity
    Ethmoid
  93. wall of nasal cavity
    • ethmoid
    • palatine
    • inferior nasal chonchae
  94. floor of nasal cavity
    • maxillae
    • palatine
  95. septum of nasal cavity
    • vomer
    • ethmoid
  96. Bones in paranasal sinuses
    • frontal
    • sphenoid
    • ethmoid
    • maxillae
  97. Atlas-Occipital condyle
    YES motion
  98. Atlas-Axis:
    No motion
  99. Manubrium
    • Clavicle - synovial
    • 1st pair ribs - cartilaginous
    • 2nd pair ribs - synovial
  100. Body
    2nd to 7th pair ribs - synovial
  101. Kyphosis
    Hunchback
  102. Lordosis
    swayback
  103. Intervertebral disc
    • Nucleus pulposus
    • Anulus fibrosus
  104. Acromion
    Joint with clavicle
  105. Glenoid cavity
    joint with humerous
  106. coracoid process
    attachment for bicepts
  107. pelvic girdle
    coxal bone: ilium, ischium, pubis
  108. Synovial joints
    • membrane
    • cavity
    • fluid
    • articular cartilage
    • ligament
  109. Flexion
    angle between bones (elbow)
  110. abduction
    to move leg away from body medially
  111. dorsiflexion
    move foot up and down
  112. inversion
    foot side to side
  113. Osteoarthritis
    wear and tear
  114. rheomatoid arthritis
    autoimmune
  115. gouty athritis
    uric acid

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