Medical Terminology Chapter 5

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jeanim
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223842
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Medical Terminology Chapter 5
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2013-06-14 15:05:41
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Cardiology
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  1. atrium
    upper chamber of the heart
  2. ventricle
    lower chamber of the heart
  3. septum
    wall that that divides the heart into left and right sides
  4. apex
    the inferior tip of the heart
  5. valves
    control the flow of blood through the heart.  Tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, mitral valve, and aortic valve
  6. tricuspid valve
    between the right atrium and right ventricle.  It has three triangular cusps.
  7. pulmonary valve
    Between the right ventricle and and the pulmonary trunk
  8. mitral valve
    between the left atrium and left ventricle.  It has two cusps adn is also known as the biscuspid valve.
  9. aortic valve
    between the left ventricle and the aorta.
  10. chordae tendineae
    ropelike connective tissues attached to the tricuspid and mitral valve leaflets.
  11. myocardium
    the muscular layer of the heart.
  12. endocardium
    innermost layer for cells that lines the atria, ventricles, and heart valves
  13. pericardium
    outermost layer.  A membrane that surrounds the hear as the pericardial sac and secretes pericardial fluid.
  14. thoracic cavity
    contains the lungs and the mediastinum
  15. mediastinum
    and irregularly shaped central area between the lungs
  16. great vessels
    aorta, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, pulmonary arteries and veins
  17. cardiothoracic
    close relationship between the heart and the thoracic cavity
  18. vasculature
    refers to the blood vessels associated with a particular organ
  19. endothelium
    a smooth inner layer that promotes the flow of blood
  20. intima
    the endothelium
  21. arteries
    the large blood vessels that branch into smaller arteries
  22. arterioles
    smaller arteries
  23. vasocontriction
    when the smooth muscle contracts constricting the lumen of the artery
  24. vasodilation
    when the smooth muscle relaxes, increasing the size of the lumen
  25. capillaries
    the smallest blood vessels in the body
  26. veins
    carry blood back to the heart from the body
  27. venules
    small veins
  28. aorta
    the largest artery in the body
  29. ascending aorta
    travels from the heart in a superior direction
  30. coronary arteries
    branch off directly from the ascending aorta to the heart muscle
  31. aortic arch
    an inverted u-shaped segment
  32. carotid arteries
    bring oxygenated blood to the neck, face, head and brain
  33. subclavian arteries
    bring oxygenated blood to the shoulders
  34. axillary artery
    in the area of the armpit.  divides into the brachial artery
  35. brachial artery
    brings blood to the upper arm, then into the radial and ulnar arteries
  36. ulnar artery
    brings blood to the lower arm
  37. radial artery
    brings blood to the lower arm
  38. thoracic aorta
    travels inferiorly through the thoracic cavity.  Brings blood to the esophagus, muscles between the ribs, diaphragm, upper spinal chord, and back
  39. abdominal aorta
    brings blood to the organs in the abdominopelvic cavity - stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, small intestine, large intestine, adrenal glands, kidneys, ovaries testes, and the lower spinal cord.
  40. Iliac arteries
    bring blood to the hip and groin
  41. femoral artery
    brings blood to the upper leg
  42. popliteal artery
    near the knee joint
  43. tibial artery
    brings blood to the front and back of the lower leg
  44. peroneal
    brings blood to the outside of the lower leg
  45. pulmonary arteries
    originate from the pulmonary trunk
  46. superior vena cava
    carries blood from the head, neck, arms, and chest to the right atrium
  47. inferior vena cava
    carries blood from the rest of the body, except lungs, to the right atrium
  48. pulmonary veins
    carry blood fro the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
  49. jugular vein
    carries blood from the head to the superior vena cava
  50. portal vein
    carries blood from the intestines to the liver
  51. saphenous vein
    carry blood from the leg to the groin
  52. femoral vein
    carry blood from the leg to the vein
  53. systemic circulation
    arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins everywhere in the body except in the lungs
  54. pulmonary circulation
    arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins going to, within, and coming from the lungs
  55. foramen ovale
    a small oval opening on the septum between the atria that allows some of the oxygenated blood to enter the left side of the heart where it is immediately pumped out to the body
  56. ductus arteriosus
    a connecting blood vessel between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta that allows the rest of the oxygenated blood to go into the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk but then diverts it to the aorta.
  57. sinoatrial node (SA node)
    the pacemaker of the heart that initiates the electrical impulse that begins each heartbeat.
  58. atrioventricular node (AV node)
    a small area in the right atrium near the interatrial septum.  Receives electrical impulses from the SA node
  59. bundle of His
    part of the conduction system of the heart after the AV node that splits into the right and left bundle branches
  60. Purkinje fibers
    a network of nerves extending from the bundle branches
  61. systole
    the contraction of the heart muscles
  62. diastole
    the rest period between heart muscle contractions

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