Medical Terminology Chapter 6
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Medical Terminology Chapter 6
Hematology and Immunology
a clear, straw-colored liquid that makes up 55% of the blood
protein molecule in the blood
chemical structures that carry a positive or negative electrical charge - sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), calcium (Ca), and bicarbonate (HCO3)
the process by which all of the formed elements in the plasma are produced.
extremely immature cell in the red marrow that is the precursor to all types of blood cells
red blood cells (RBC) are round, somewhat flattened, red disks. No nucleus
a red, iron-containing molecule
hemoglobin bound to oxygen
a very immature red blood cell
a nearly mature red blood cell
a hormone that dramatically increases the speed at which erythrocytes are produced and become mature
leukocytes with granules in the cytoplasm - neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
no granules in cytoplasm - monocytes and lymphocytes
granules are neutral. Engulf and destroy bacteria. Most common leukocyte - 40-60%
granules stain red. Engulf and destroy foreign cells (allergens) and destroy parasites
granules stain dark blue. Release histamine at the site of tissue injury, release heparin to limit the size of a forming blood clot. Least common at 0.5-1%
few or no granules. Engulf and destroy viruses and produce antibodies. 20-40%
few or no granules. Engulf and destroy micro-organism, cancerous cells, dead leukocytes, and cellular debris. 2-4%
polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN
a band is an immature neutrophil that has a nucleus shaped like a curved band. AKA stab (german for band)
engulf and destroy bacteria - phagocytosis
different from other blood cells because it is only a cell fragment. Active during the blood clotting process.
protein molecule on the cell membrane of the erythrocyte
Type A blood
A antigen - anti-B antibodies
Type B blood
B antigen - anti-A antibodies
Type AB blood
A and B antigens - no antibodies
Type O blood
no antigens - anti A and B antibodies
process of platelets sticking to a damaged blood vessel wall and forming clumps
a series of 12 substances that are released either from platelets or injured tissue or are produced by the liver
formation of a blood clot by platelets, erythrocytes, and clotting factors
strands formed by the activation of clotting factor. Fibrin traps erythrocytes to for a blood clot
blood clotting factor I
the cessation of bleeding
blood clotting factor II.
fluid portion of the plasma that remains after the clotting factors are activated to form a blood clot
blood clotting factor III
vessels that begin as capillaries, carry lymph, continue through lymph nodes, and empty into the right lymphatic duct or the thoracic duct
fluid that flows through the lymphatic system
small, encapsulated pieces of lymphoid tissue located along lymphatic vessels.
tonsils, adenoids, and Peyers's patches
a lymphoid organ with a pink color and grainy consistency. Active and larger during childhood, but atrophies during adulthood
a rounded lymphoid organ located in the ULQ of the abdomen. Removes old red blood cells from the blood
involves a coordinated effort between the blood and the lymphatic system to destroy microorganisms that invade the body and cancerous cells that arise within the body
microorganisms that cause disease
chemicals released by injured body tissues to summon leukocytes
dilates blood vessels and increases blood flow, which causes redness and also brings more leukocytes to the area
produced by macrophages that have engulfed a virus. Stimulates cells to produce an antiviral substance that prevents a virus from entering a cell and reproducing
stimulates B and T cell lymphocytes and activates NK cells. Also produces the fever associated with inflammation and infection.
tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
destroys endotoxins produced by certain bacteria. It also destroys cancer cells
NK cells (natural killer)
special lymphocytes that recognize a pathogen by the antigens on its cell wall and release chemicals to destroy it.
inactive until a macrophage presents them with fragments from a pathogen, the B cell changes into a plasma cell and produces antibodies against that pathogen. Activate helper T cells
memory T cells
created when a helper T cell is exposed to a pathogen. Inactive until the next time that pathogen enters the body, then they remember and become cytotoxic T cells
helper T cells
stimulate the production of cytotoxic T cells. Helper T cells also produce memory T cells
cytotoxic T cells
engulf and destroy all types of pathogens as well as body cells that have been invaded by a virus
supressor T cells
limit the extent and duration of the immune response by inhibiting B cells and cytotoxic T cells.
if NK cells do not immediately destroy a pathogen, then antibodies coat the pathogen and mark it to be destroyed. Also known as immunoglobulins
a group of nine proteins that activate each other. Attach to the antibodies and drill holes in the pathogen's cell wall.
immunoglobulin A - antibody present in body secretions and on the surface of the skin.
immunoglobulin D - antibody present on the surface of B cells. It stimulates the B cell to become a plasma cell
immunoglobulin E - antibody present on the surface of basophils. It causes them to release histamine and heparin during inflammatory and allergic reactions
immunoglubulin G - antibody that is produced by plasma cells the second time a specific pathogen enters the body.
immunoglobulin M - antibody that is produced by plasma cells during the initial exposure to a pathogen. Also reacts to incompatible blood types during a blood transfusion