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What is the Maillard effect?
The browning of crust as a complex reaction between carbohydrates and proteins during baking
Name 5 general causes of faulty bakery products
- hygiene issues
- not measuring ingredients properly
- not conditioning raw ingredients properly
- not following recipes
- under/over baking product
- not using quality ingredients
- contaminated raw ingredients
- under/over mixing product
Name the major component of FLOUR
Name a bakery product that is very dependant upon the development of gluten protein in flour to provide the structure of the product
Bread, and yeast raised pastries
Name 2 types of flours / starch whcih do not contain gluten proteins
corn flour, arrowroot, potato starch
Name the parts of the flour which provide food for yeast in fermented dough
Explain why wholemeal flour should only be stored for short periods of time
Wholemeal flour will go rancid quicker than "white" flours because of the presence of fat in the germ and bran.
When substituting crystal sugar with liquid sugar, such as honey, in a recipe describe hat allowance should be made when calculating the weight
Allow for 20% moisture in the liquid sugar
Explain how fats improve the keeping qualities of cakes
Fat seals in moisture - retarding evaporation
Describe how fats help to produce shorter eating pastries
Fat coats gluten and inhibits gluten development during mixing
Describe the effects of storing butter with fresh pineapplr or onions
The Butter will absorb the flavours which is in contact with. (pineapple butter or onion butter will be produced)
Explain how eggs can improve the emulsion in a cake batter
Egg Yolks contain a natural emulsifier called lecithin and this helps to bind two things that wouldn't normally bind together eg. fat and liquid.
Describe the effect of milk casein on gluten in yeast doughs
The casein will toughen the gluten in the dough, resulting in poor volume
Describe the function of glycerine in cake and sponge products
Glycerine is a hygroscopic ingredient - it draws moisture into itself and helps with keeping qualities with this characteristic
Name the chemical aerator that may product a soapy taste when used in bakery products
Bicarb Soda or Sodium Bicarbonate
Describe the function of acetic acide when added to an egg white foam, such as for meringues
Stabilises the product
By lowering the pH of the meringue
Describe how baking powder aerates bakery products
When water is mixed with the acid and heat is applied, CO2 is produced and aerates the product
Describe the purpose of rubbing the fat through the dry ingredients when using the rub in method to make scones, pastries or similar
Fat acts as a lubricant and coats the gluten retarding gluten development
List four examples of the use of mechanical aeration for making bakery products
- Sponge cakes
- Whipping cream
- Mousse - fold in cream
Describe the function of sugar in the mechanical aeration process
The crystals of sugar cut into the fat/egg/batter to form pockets where air is entrapped
Describe two actions that provide the browning of the crust of bakery products during baking
Caramelisation of sugars
Describe how the size of a product may affect the baking temperature to be used.
The larger the product - the lower the temperature to be used - to ensure a thick burnt crust doesn't develop and with the inner part of the product not being baked through.
List and describe three reasons for packaging bakery products
- Protect product from damage
- Regulates moisture of product
Describe how added emulsifiers improve cakes
Improves texture by combining ingredients that wouldn't normally bind together eg. Fat and Liquid
List and describe two functions of pregelatinised starch in a cake
- Raises viscosity in batter
- improves moisture retention (keeping qualities)
Explain the importance of temperature control when producing cake batters
Having the batter at the correct temperature - improves mechanical aeration and produces a more stable emulsion
Describe three possible causes of curdled cake batter
- Cold liquid going into warm fat
- Warm liquid going into cold fat
- Liquid added too quickly
- Too much liquid for the amount of fat in batter
Describe two cake faults that result from a curdled batter
- Bad texture - uneven
- Loss of Volume
- Darker inner crumb colour
Explain how sugar improves the keeping qualities of sponges
Since sugar is hygroscopic - it draws moisture from the surrounding air and this moisture improves the keeping qualities
When using sponge stabiliser/emulsifiers the optimum batter temperature may vary between different types and brands that are available. Explain how you should determine the required batter temperature to produce the best results in the baked sponge.
Read the instructions on the packaging carefully and use as directed
Name the grades of flour best suited to making short pastry
- Soft to medium grade flour
- (biscuit, sponge, hi ratio, bakers)
Explain why it is necessary to use a fine crystal or powdered sugar to make sweet short pastry
Since there is only a small amount of liquid that the sugar must dissolve in, the sugar has to be a finer grade to be able to dissolve
Explain why it is recommended to refrigerate short pastry made with butter
To allow the pastry to rest, for the gluten to develop slightly and to firm up making roll-out easier.
Describe the main function of baking powder in short pastry
Opens the texture allowing for shorter eating
Name the grade of flour best suited for making puff pastry
- Bakers flour / Strong flour
- Needed for gluten development and the dough will be able to laminate with the roll-in fat and form hundreds of alternate layers of dough and fat
Explain why it is necessary to have the dough and the roll in fat of the same consistency for making puff pastry
Because you want them to laminate properly. If one is softer than the other then the layers will not be made in the process, you will have bad lift in your puff pastry.
Describe how the addition of egg to a fermented dough improved the baked product
- Helps provide a better structure to product
- colours the crumb/crust
- adds flavour
- improves volume
Explain how bread improver improves bread and other yeast products
- Stimulates yeast activity (helps with CO2 production)
- helps with condition gluten in dough
- improves gas retention in dough
Liquid bun spice is added to flavour spiced buns. The bun spice can also retard yeast activity in the yeast dough. Explain how?
The essential oils in the bun spice retards yeast activity
Describe four functions of non-diastatic malt in bread
- Improved volume
- improves grain and texture
- improves crust colour
- improves keeping qualities
- produces a nutty flavour in bread
Explain the importance of temperature control in yeast doughs. How does the temperature affect the dough
To promote yeast activity in the dough, the final dough temperature must come to a specific temperature to ensure enough yeast activity, therefore enough CO2 is produced. If the dough is too cool, not enough yeast activity will be generated. Too warm and the yeast will produce too much CO2 resulting with a collapsed oven spring, or even the death of the yeast if it too hot.
What is an invert sugar?
- An Invert sugar is equal amounts of glucose and frutose resulting from the hydrolysis of sucrose.
- Found naturally in Honey and fruit sugars and produced artificially for use in the food industry.