Kohlberg's Theory

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speedracer3605
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Kohlberg's Theory
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2009-12-04 19:32:03
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Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development:
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  1. Level One:Pre-conventional Morality
    Stage 1: Punishment-Obedience Orientation

    Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation
  2. Level Two:Conventional Morality
    Stage 3: Good Boy-Nice Girl Orientation

    Stage 4: Law and Order Orientation
  3. Level Three:Post-Conventional Morality
    Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation

    Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principle Orientation
  4. Stage 1: Punishment-Obedience Orientation
    • Lawrence Kohlberg: "Physical consequences
    • of an action determine its goodness or badness regardless of the human meaning or value of these consequences. Avoidance of punishment and unquestioning deference to power are valued in their own right, not in terms of respect for an underlying moral order supported by punishment and authority." (Duska, R. and Whelan, M., 1975) Summary: The concern is for self - "Will I get into trouble for doing (or not doing) it?" Good behaviour is associated with avoiding punishment.
  5. Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation
    Lawrence Kohlberg: Right action is "that which instrumentally satisfies one's own needs and occasionally the needs of others." "Human relations are viewed in terms like those of the marketplace; elements of fairness, reciprocity and equal sharing are present, but they are always interpreted in a physical or pragmatic way. Reciprocity is a matter of 'you scratch my back and I'll scratch yours,' not of loyalty, gratitude or justice." (Duska, R. and Whelan, M., 1975)Summary: The concern is "What's in it for me?" Still egocentric in outlook but with a growing ability to see things from another person's perspective. Action is judged right if it helps in satisfying one's needs or involves a fair exchange.
  6. Stage 3: Good Boy-Nice Girl Orientation
    Lawrence Kohlberg: "Good behavior is that which pleases or helps others and is approved by them. There is much conformity to stereotypical images of what is majority or 'natural' behaviour. Behavior is frequently judged by intention. 'He means well' becomes important for the first time. One earns approval by being 'nice.'" (Duska, R. and Whelan, M., 1975) Summary: The concern is "What will people think of me?" and the desire is for group approval. Right action is one that would please or impress others. This often involves self-sacrifice but it provides the psychological pleasure of 'approval of others.' Actions are also judged in relation to their intention.
  7. Stage 4: Law and Order Orientation
    Lawrence Kohlberg: "Right behavior consists in doing one's duty, showing respect for authority and maintaining the given social order for its own sake." A person in this stage "orients to society as a system of fixed rule, law and authority with the prospect of any deviation from rules as leading to social chaos." (Duska, R. and Whelan, M., 1975)Summary: The concern now goes beyond one's immediate group(s) to the larger society ... to the maintenance of law and order. One's obligation to the law overrides one's obligations of loyalty to one's family, friends and groups. To put it simply, no one or group is above the law.
  8. Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation
    • Lawrence Kohlberg: "Generally with utilitarian overtones. Right action tends to be defined in terms of general individual rights
    • and in terms of standards which have been critically examined and agreed upon by the whole society ... with an emphasis upon the possibility of changing law in terms of rational consideration of social utility (rather than rigidly maintaining it in terms of Stage 4 law and order)." (Duska, R. and Whelan, M., 1975) Summary: The concern is social utility or public interest. While rules are needed to maintain social order, they should not be blindly obeyed but should be set up (even changed) by social contract for the greater good of society. Right action is one that protects the rights of the individual according to rules agreed upon by the whole society.
  9. Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principle Orientation
    Lawrence Kohlberg: "Right is defined by the decision of conscience in accord with self-chosen ethical principles appealing to logical comprehensiveness, universality and consistency. These principles are abstract and ethical (the golden rule, the categorical imperative) and are not concrete moral rules like the Ten Commandments. At heart, these are universal principles of justice, of the reciprocity and equality of human rights, and of respect for the dignity of human beings as individual persons." (Duska, R. and Whelan, M., 1975)Explanatory Notes:

    The Golden Rule: "Do unto others as you

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