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Issue 1: Rural Isolation
- Rural areas tend to have dirt roads making travel slow and difficult.
- Not much local public transport and there are only fuel stations in towns.
- Can take 8-12 hours to get to the capital (Kampala) from Kabujogera.
Issue 2: Rural Poverty
- Poverty mainly in rural areas due to low pay, subsistence farming, smallholdings and low investment.
- Kabujogera - 85% are subsistence farmers, labour is from extended family, some manage to grow cash crops, most houses only earn half of what they need, thus (38% f and 28% m) have extra jobs and some work in urban areas and send money home.
- Subsistence farmers - cycle of poverty (low production), 60% households don't grow enough (extra food = debt), not many getting additional inputs and no training for many.
Issue 3: Education
- Low average literacy rates (77% m, 58% f), in rural areas lower (60% m, 42% f), 2010 - 93% children in rural areas attended school until 11 (primary classes often large).
- Secondary education free until 18 (but demand too large) + students must buy own equipment.
- Close link between poverty and education but many find it very expensive and children must walk many kilometres.
- Dropping out of school - school fees + work + f-marriage (scholarships for clever, but otherwise must pay for very expensive University fees)
Issue 3: Status of Women in Rural Areas
- Gender inequalities - primary 1:1, age 12 - 1:10
- Married women + girls = manual labour/domestic work/care for children (20 - 30 yrs)
- Women rarely own land/unmarried or widowed = sell labour
- Education of girls = earn more + better quality of life - low infant mortality rates
- Maternal mortality rates high (rural) = malnourished/very thin/only 40% with medical staff/little professional help
Issue 4: Health in Rural Areas
- Paid for by individual + only part-time workers in clinics - nearest hospital to Kabujogera is in Ibanda
- HIV - (57% f, 43% m), level of education reduces chance of getting HIV.
- More areas for testing are needed, esp. in rural areas, expensive treatment (2011 - 40% getting treatment)
- Effects of HIV - energy reduced + unable to work + death in 5 yrs + expensive funerals + +1 million orphans
- Not many receive improved drinking water + water must carried
- Pit latrines - no sewage systems
- Disease - infected water/insects/microscopic worms/animal contact
Issue 5: Energy
- Average - 9% in Uganda (44% urban, 2.4% rural), some have generators (expensive-imported oil)
- Firewood - deforestation, time taken up, threatening biodiversity