Quarterly 3 Exam First Five Definitions
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Pope Urban II called for the 1st crusade because he received a letter from Alexios I Komnenos asking for help against the Seljuk Turks who had taken over large portions of his empire. This first unofficial wave of the first crusade is known as the people's crusade, led by Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless. The first battle of the first crusade was the battle of Dorylaeum in 1097. The official crusader army left from Le Puy, France in August of 1096 AD. Major players of the first crusade include Duke Godfrey, Hugh of France, Bohemond, and Raymond of Toulouse.
Pope Eugeius III called for the second crusade after the fall of the county of Edessa to Zengi in 1144. The crusaders left Europe in may of 1147. It was lead by Conrad III of Germany and Louis VII of France.
The Audita Tremendi was issued by Pope Gregory VIII in 1187 calling for the third crusade in response to the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin. Frequently called the 'Kings Crusade' because it was led by King Phillip Augustus, King Richard I, and German Emperor Frederick Barbossa. The third crusade was concluded as a tie with the signing of the treaties of Ramla and Jaffa by Richard I and Saladin.
In 1198 Pope Innocent III proclaims the launch of the 4th Crusade. A tax was put on churches and used to fund the crusade. The plan of the crusade was to raid Cairo, Egypt first, and attack Jerusalem from the south rather than the north. When the crusade ended, the eastern and western halves of the church were never re-unified.
The first unofficial wave of the first crusade; a mass migration of people to the Holy Land; the unintended result of Pope Urban II's calling for the first crusade.
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