What was the official battle cry of the first crusade?
Deus lo Volt!
What pope called for the 1st Crusade?
Pope Urban II
Who sent a letter to Pope Urban II regarding Muslim Seljuk Turks who had taken over large portions of his Empire?
Alexios I Komnenos
What female historian was a primary source and wrote the Alexiad, recounting the events of the first crusade?
What French city did Pope Urban II call the first crusade from?
Where did the official crusader army leave from in 1096 AD at the start of the first crusade?
Le Puy, France
What group of people were routinely attacked and accosted by members of the people's crusade even though they were ordered not to do so by the church?
Who was the Turkish sultan in charge of the Seljuk Turkish forces in and around the city of Nicaea?
Where did an atrocious act of barbarity and cannibalism occur along the crusaders path to Jerusalem?
What are four reasons historians give Pope Urban II for calling out the first crusade?
-reconquer the holy land
-reunify the eastern and western halves of the church (heal the great schism)
-establish the papacy as a political entity to serve as the ultimate secular authority in Western Europe
-stop Christian on Christian violence
Leaders of the First Crusade
-Hugh of France
-Raymond of Toulouse
Leaders of the Second Crusade
-Louis VII of France
-Conrad III of Germany
Who was the orator (called people to) of the 2nd Crusade?
St. Bernard of Clairveux
What event sparked off the 2nd Crusade?
The fall of the County of Edessa
Leaders of the Third Crusade
-Richard I of England
-HRE Frederick Barbarossa
-Philip II Augustus of France
What is the term for a legal order from the pope?
What papal bull called for the Third Crusade?
The Audita Tremendi
What pope called for the Audita Tremendi?
Pope Gregory VIII
The Emperor Frederick Barbarossa died while crossing what river?
The Selef River
Leaders of the Fourth Crusade
-Theobald III of Champagne
-Boniface of Montferrat
What pope calls for the 4th crusade in 1198AD?
Pope Innocent III
The plan of the fourth crusade was to first sack and seige what city, and then attack Jerusalem from the south?
What was the first battle of the 4th crusade?
The Battle at Zara
When the crusaders arrived in Venice without the 85,000 marks required for payment to the venetians, the venetians tell them they can make it up by capturing what Hungarian city?
Who was in charge of the city of Venice during the fourth crusade?
Who made a deal with the crusaders during the fourth crusade in which they would help to place him back on the throne of the Byzantine Empire?
Alexius Angelus had the crusaders capture what Christian city for him?
What bacteria caused the Black Death?
What term refers to the wealthy individuals who funded for the arts and education during the Renaissance?
What military order established hospitals along the pilgrim road from Jaffa to Jerusalem?
The Knights Hospitallar
What military order's main goal was to safely guide pilgrims on the road to Jaffa and Jerusalem?
The Knights Templar
What battle led by Saladin in July of 1187 destroyed a huge portion of the Latin Kingdoms army at the 'Horns of Hattin'?
The battle of Hattin
What military order compromised of German speaking knights held many crusades against the Pagans in Eastern Europe?
The Teutonic Knights
What Muslim general conquered the County of Edessa in December of 1144, sparking the second Crusade?
What kurtish general for the Muslim armies was educated in Damascus and ruled Egypt as the representive of Nur a Din and fought in the third crusade?
What is the name of the shiete assassins who attempted to kill Saladin mulitiple times?
What crusader broke multiple treaties with the Muslims and caused the battle of Hattin after attacking a caravan traveling with Saladin's sister?
Reginald de Chatillion
What is the proper term for a war fought for religious reasons and purposes?
What is the term for the act or process of surrounding and attacking a fortified place in such a way as to isolate it from help and supplies, for the purpose of lessening the resistance of the defenders and thereby making capture possible?
What term means to pillage or loot after capture?
What is the term for a violent attack on a Jewish community?
What was an intelectual movement during the Renaissance that focused on the study of classical culture and worldy, rather than religious, subjects?
What was the time period in Western Europe when there was a rebirth and rediscovery of interest in classical learning, art, and architecture called?
What is the everyday language of people in a particular region?
What group of people believed the plague was a punishment from God, and believed that by punishing themselves they would save themselves from further punishment?
What is the term for a person who goes against the teachings of the church?
What is the term for a court set up by the Church to try people accused of heresy?
What is the artistic technique used during the Renaissance to give paintings a three-dimensional effect?
What ancient form of painting was done on wet plaster and used during the Renaissance?
What is the term for the large, hard, and swollen bumps that appear on the skin as a symptom of the Bubonic Plague?
What form of plague is spread by a carrier insect?
What manifestation of plague is an infection of the blood?
What form of plague is found in the lungs and causes the formation of flem that spreads and allows them to become red with blood?
In the early 1300's the city on the border of France and Italy where Pope Clermont V moved the papacy?
What term refers to the study of divine things or religious truth?
What is the depiction of the Virgin Mary holding the body of Christ after he is removed from the cross and is done by Michelangelo?
What percentaeg of the population of Western Europe died due to the Black Death?
During the Renaissance, what group of subjects practiced humanism?
What Italian city is known to be the first place the plague came ashore?