1919-01-16: 18th Amendment (effective 1920-01-17) forbade the "manufacture, sale, and transportation of intoxicating liquors" (but did not define "intoxicating liquors", provide penalties, or forbid consumption)
1920: National Prohibition Act (aka Volstead Act) was vetoed by Woodrow Wilson but overridden by Congress. It defined intoxicating liquor as any beverage containing > 0.5% ABV.
1933-12-05: 21st Amendment allowed states to set their own laws governing the sale of alcohol within their borders.
What was the effect of Prohibition?
The "Noble Experiment" arose from the Temperance Movement. It led to a near-total shutdown of Americas wine industry and the rise of criminal gangs that became rich and were admired by the public despite murder and corruption.
Who was the Volstead act named after?
Representative Andrew J. Volstead of Minnesota
Who submitted the 21st amendment?
Senator John Blaine of Wisconsin (1932-12-06)
How many wineries were in California at the start and end of Prohibition?
Which winery thrived during Prohibition?
The Frenchman Georges de Latours Beaulieu Vineyards declared itself the House of Altar Wine.
Name the 7 Sub-AVAs of Lodi
Big Portugese population
Use Conjunctive labeling
Cosumnes River (cool)
Borden Ranch (medium)
Mokelumne River (medium)
Alta Mesa (warm)
Clement Hills (warm)
Map the San Francisco Bay Area Counties and name the 6 within the SFB AVA
Map the 16 AVAs in Napa Valley
Map the Counties in the Central Coast
Map the 5 (+2 pending) AVAs in Lake County
Map the 8 counties in the Sierra Foothills AVA
Map the Delta AVAs
Map the 15 Sonoma County AVAs
How many AVAs within Monterey County are nested within the Monterey AVA? Map them.
Define Conjunctive labeling
Using both the major AVA and the nested AVA on the label
Name the fastest growing AVA in California
When did North Coast become an AVA?
How many AVAs are in San Benito County?
7 AVAs and 11 wineries:
Pacheco Pass (mostly in Santa Clara County)
Chalone (mostly in Monterey County)
Where/What is the transverse range?
In Santa Maria Valley AVA (WAR Zone I)
North-South Coast Mountains Bend East-West, allowing cool ocean breeze and fog
Long Growing Season
What is the 2nd newest AVA in Sonoma County?
Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak (Oct 2011)
(was submitted as Pine Mountain-Mayacamus but this was fought by Napa Valley Vintners)
Spans Mendocino (2/3) and Sonoma (1/3) counties
Elevation > 1500 feet
Define Chert soil (in Sta. Rita Hills AVA)
Micro-crystalline (very fine-grained) sedimentary rock composed of silicon dioxide (SiO2)
How many Sonoma AVAs were NOT established in 1983? Name them.
1981: Sonoma Valley
1984: Alexander Valley
1985: Sonoma Mountain
1986: Northern Sonoma
1987: Sonoma Coast
2003: Bennett Valley
2011: Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak
2012: Fort Ross-Seaview
What does Los Carneros mean?
What are the primary grapes of El Dorado AVA?
Red: CS, Zin, Merlot, Syrah, PS, Barbera
When was the North Coast AVA established?
3 million acres
Describe the North Yuba AVA
CS, Zin, Syrah, Barbera
Renaissance Winery founded in 1971 by a religous group
How big is Sonoma County and how many AVAs does it contain?
47 miles long X 52 miles wide
What is the newest AVA in Sonoma County?
Fort Ross-Seaview (Jan 2012)
Nested within the Sonoma Coast AVA
Above the Fog (900-1800 feet elevation)
What soil is found in the Red Hills AVA?
Red volcanic soils
What vineyard problems does Ben Lomond have?
What mission was established in 1823 in the town of Sonoma?
San Francisco Solano (Franciscan mission)
How many missions did the Spanish build?
The Spanish built 21 missions (religious organization), 4 presidios (military fort), and 2 pueblos (permanent village), on the El Camino Real
From Mission San Diego to Mission Sonoma
Built over 55 years (from 1769 to 1823)
Name the 2 AVAs nested within Russian River AVA
Name America's oldest winery
Casa Madero ("timber" in Spanish), established 1597 (in Coahuila, Mexico)
Name the last (and northern-most) mission built by the Franciscans
1823: San Francisco de Solano
The site of Sonoma's town square
Name the 11(+2 pending) AVAs in Mendocino County
PENDING: Ukiah Valley and Sanel Valley
Name the most widely planted grape in Paso Robles
Name the coolest AVA in Sonoma
What do all AVAs in the Sierra Foothills AVA share?
Name 2 East-West rivers in Santa Barbara County
Santa Maria River
Santa Ynez River (draws cool air inland, weak fog)
Flow from southwest to east
Santa Barbara County has the longest hang time in California
Name the primary grapes of Carmel Valley
Describe events in the life of Agoston Haraszthy (Father of California Viticulture)
1812: Born in Pest, Hungary
1840: Moves to Wisconsin; hunter and entrepreneur
1850: Moves to San Diego, elected sheriff, city marshal, and member of the California State Assembly
1852: Buys real estate near Mission San Francisco de Asís (Mission Dolores)
1854: The first U.S. assayer (determines composition and value of ores)
1857: founds Buena Vista Winery in Sonoma and hires Charles Krug as winemaker
1858: Writes “Report on Grapes and Wine of California
1861: Introduced 350+ European varieties to California
1868: Moves to Nicaragua
1869: Disappears (eaten by alligators?)
Name the mountaiun range that divides San Benito and Montery Counties
Name the largest AVA in Sonoma County
1987: Sonoma Coast (driven by Sonoma-Cutrer)
Name the AVAs nested within San Benito AVA
Cienega Valley (including Lime Kiln)
Name the winery that won the 1976 Judgment of Paris (for red wine)
#1 Stag's Leap Wine Cellars 1973
#2 Château Mouton-Rothschild 1970
#3 Château Montrose 1970
#4 Château Haut-Brion 1970
#5 Ridge Vineyards Monte Bello 1971
#6 Château Leoville Las Cases 1971
#7 Heitz Wine Cellars Martha's Vineyard 1970
#8 Clos Du Val Winery 1972
#9 Mayacamas Vineyards 1971
#10 Freemark Abbey Winery 1969
Name the winery that won the 2006 Re-Judgment of Paris (for red wine)
#1 Ridge Monte Bello 1971 (was #5 in the 1976 Judgement of Paris)
#2 Stag's Leap Wine Cellars 1973
#3/#4 (tie) Heitz Martha's Vineyard 1970
#3/#4 (tie) Mayacamas 1971
#5 Clos du Val 1972
#6 Chateau Mouton-Rothschild 1970
#7 Chateau Montrose 1970
#8 Chateau Haut-Brion 1970
#9 Chateau Leoville-Las-Cases 1971
#10 Freemark Abbey 1969
Name the winery that won the 1976 Judgment of Paris (for white wine)
#1 Chateau Montelena 1973
#2 Meursault Charmes Roulot 1973
#3 Chalone Vineyard 1974
#4 Spring Mountain Vineyard 1973
#5 Beaune Clos des Mouches Joseph Drouhin 1973
#6 Freemark Abbey Winery 1972
#7 Batard-Montrachet Ramonet-Prudhon 1973
#8 Puligny-Montrachet Les Pucelles Domaine Leflaive 1972
#9 Veedercrest Vineyards 1972
#10 David Bruce Winery 1973
Name the primary grapes of Lime Kiln AVA
Old Vine Mourvedre and Zinfandel
Name the AVA nested within Cienega Valley AVA
Name the 2 wineries in the Paicines AVA
Abandoned by Almaden
Name the break in the coastal range that allows fog and cool breezes into the Russian River AVA
Who is the largest producer in Lake County?
What are the most widely planted grapes in High Valley AVA?
#1 Bordeaux Varietals (CS, CF, M, PV, Malbec)
#2 Zin, PS
#4 Tempranillo, PN
Name the most widely planted grapes of Sonoma County
Red: CS (20%), PN (17%), Merlot (13%), Zin (8%)
White: CH (27%), SB (4%)
What was the first winery to open after Prohibition ended?
1933: Bargetto Winery (Santa Cruz Mountains AVA)
What is the financial impact of wine in Napa?
Within Napa: $11B and 40K jobs
Beyond Napa: $42.4B (=34% of CA impact)
Which AVA is divided by the San Andreas Fault?
Which South Coast AVA winery claims to be California's oldest winery?
Part of original Rancho Cucamonga
What AVA overlaps San Bernadino and Riverside counties?
1995: Cucamonga Valley
What percent is CS of all wines from Napa?
Harvest: 40% (12% of California)
How many people are employed in the California wine industry?
As of 2010:
Tourists: 20.7 million
Name 2 AVAs within San Diego County
1981: San Pasqual Valley, 1 winery (Orfillia), 4th AVA ever granted
2005: Ramona Valley, 16 wineries
Hot climate (WAR Zone IV)
Which AVA has a 5000 acre protected area (citrus/vineyard zone)?
Temecula Valley AVA
Who was the original (1984) Rhone Ranger?
Santa Cruz Mountains AVA
What was the first single winery AVA in U.S.A.?
Guenoc Valley (Langtry Estate)
Also the first AVA in Lake County
When was Santa Clara Valley AVA established?
Name the top varieties in Napa (in descending order)
What vintner submitted the San Francisco Bay AVA and why?
Easier to sell SFB name rather than Livermore Valley
State 2 reasons why Edna Valley's climate differs from Paso Robles climate
Cool sea breezes
York Mountain is 7 miles from the the ocean at Templeton Gap
Paso Robles is 20 miles from the ocean at Templeton Gap
Why is Edna Valley cool?
5 miles from Pacific Ocean
Gap in coastal mountains where Los Osos Valley meets Morro Bay
Cool sea breezes and morning fog
Big diurnal range
Winkler-Amerine Region II
Name the 5 AVAs of San Luis Obispo County
Arroyo Grande ("Large Stream")
Santa Maria Valley
What soils does Edna Valley have?
Topsoil: Volcanic, Black Humas, Clay
Which 2 deep currents impact Santa Barbara?
California current from the north
Humboldt current from the south
What was the first AVA in Sierra Foothills?
Fiddletown AVA (in Amador County)
Name 2 AVAs in San Joaquin County
How many AVAs are in Monterey County?
Santa Lucia Highlands (SLH is best AVA)
How many grape growers and wineries are in Lake County?
How much wine does California produce?
199.6 million cases
89% of USA production
$18.5 billion (about $7.72/bottle)
Name the 3 Santa Cruz County AVAs
Santa Cruz Mountains
Santa Clara Valley
Name the AVA that overlaps San Benito and Monterey Counties
What was America's first International Gold Medal for wine?
1844: C.H. Wente and James Concannon planted first vines in Livermore Valley
1889: Paris Exposition
What are the top grapes in the Sierra Foothills?
What 3 innovations were developed in Livermore Valley?
Roller crushing in the vineyard
What southern California county is not within or contain any AVA?
between Santa Barbara and L.A.
What is the largest AVA in Lake County?
Clear Lake AVA
Name the only winery of Mount Harlan AVA
(caliza means limestone in Spanish)
What does "Estate bottled" mean in California?
Vineyard and Winery are in the same AVA
Winery must own or control the vineyard
Winery must crush, ferment, finish, age, and bottle wine in a continuous process
Does not mean the wine is necessarily better
Name the primary grapes of Edna Valley
CH, PN, Rhone varietals
What was the first AVA in California?
What is the Great Valley Sequence and the Franciscan Formation?
Great Valley Sequence = volcanos
Franciscan Formation = ocean floor
The Pacific Plate went under the North American Plate resulting in the Mayacamus (sedimentary soil) and Vaca (volcanic soil) mountains
How did the San Andreas Fault get formed?
Triple junction of:
North American Plate
Describe the Sierra Foothills AVA
High elevation (especially Fair Play AVA)
Hot days, Cool nights
Almost entirely red wine (old vine Zin, Rhone varietals, CS)
Describe Paso Robles (Spanish for oak steps) AVA
Established in 1983
More Calcareous soil than any other AVA (most on east side)
20 miles from Templeton Gap
WAR Zone II and III
Hot days, cool nights
Important grape nursery at Tablas Creek winery
Where and when were California's first vines planted?
First vines planted in 1769 at Mission San Diego de Alcala (first mission) by Padre Junipero Sierra
Name the primary grapes of Santa Lucia Highlands
PN, CH, Syrah
Which county has the largest selection of grapes in California?
Where is the Templeton Gap?
Follows Highway 46 to the town of Templeton (Paso Robles AVA in San Luis Obispo County)
Which towns does Sta Rita Hills lie between?
Lompoc and Buelton
What is regulated?
Mandatory: origin of grapes
Optional: varietals, vintage, alcohol
What are the regulations for varietal content?
What are the regulations for vintage?
Vintage is not allowed if America is on label
What are the regulations for grape origin?
Country/State/County: 75% (100% in California)
What are the regulations for alcohol content?
7%-14%: Table Wine or +/- 1.5% if on label
> 14%: +/- 1.0% if over 14%
When was Inglenook Winery (in Rutherford) established? By who? What was he known for?
Established in 1879 by Captain Gustave Niebaum
First Bordeaux style winery in the U.S.
Name the sub-AVA where San Francisco Bay AVA was drafted
Name the AVA within San Francisco Bay that is warm, windy, and fog-free
Name the most widely planted grape in Lodi
How big is Napa?
35 miles long X 4 miles wide
about 15% the size of Bordeaux (45K acres vers 290K acres)
What is the only producer in Ben Lomond?
(Chardonnay is like a Premier Cru Chablis)
Are more red or white grapes grown in California?
1982: 55% white / 45% red
2011: 38% white / 62% red
What is the world's largest wine appellation?
2009: Upper Mississippi River Valley
30K square miles in MN, WI, IA, IL
Who said Oregon is the best place to grow PN? What was he known for?
Andre Tchelistcheff - hired by George de Latour in 1938
"Dean of California wine" ushered in the modern era of winemaking
What is Napa's warmest AVA?
Name the 5 counties and 9 AVAs within the South Coast
Los Angeles County: Malibu-Newton Canyon, Saddlerock Malibu Canyon, Leona Valley, Sierra Pelona Valley, Antelope Valley of the California High Desert (also in Kern County)
San Diego County: San Pasqual Valley, Ramona Valley
Riverside County: Temecula Valley, Cucamonga (overlap)
San Bernadino County: Cucamonga (overlap)
Orange County: no AVAs
What type of climate does Napa have?
Long growing season
No summer rain
Consistent vintages and reduced risk for vineyard disease
Name the 4 counties that surround Sonoma County
Describe Anderson Valley AVA
600 acres planted
PN, sparkling wines (3), Gewurztraminer and Riesling (Alsatian festival)
Wine diurnal range
What grapes are grown in San Antonio AVA?
Near Paso Robles
Bordeaux and Rhone varietals
Which AVA in the Sierra Foothills has the most wineries?
Half (> 60) of all Sierra Foothills wineries reside in the El Dorado AVA
True or False?
If the nested AVA is listed, Napa Valley must also be listed on the label.
1986 state law sponsored by the Napa Valley Vitners
What are the mos important grapes in Guenoc Valley?
Old Vine Petite Sirah
What wine is worth looking for in Clarksburg (a Delta AVA)?
Old Vine Chenin Blanc
What is the industry's most rigorous land use program?
Napa Green Certified Land
19K acres certified
45K acres enrolled
Name the 4 Solano County AVAs
1982: Suisun ("Sue-Soon")
1983: Solano Green Valley
1984: Clarksburg (overlaps Sacramento and Yolo counties)
1988: Wild Horse (overlaps Napa County)
Name the AVA that overlaps Santa Cruz and Santa Clara counties
Santa Clara Valley AVA
How many AVAs are there (as of August 2012)?
California: 114 (38 of 58 counties in CA have AVAs)
53% of all AVAs are in California
Name the warmest AVA in Sonoma
Name the 6 counties that make up the North Coast
What AVAs are known for sparkling wine in Sonoma County?
As of 2010, how much wine is produced in California? In the U.S.A.?
U.S.A.: 677 million gallons (8.4% of world's production; 4th largest producer)
California: 199.6 million cases = 474M gallons, $18.5 billion
Name the 3 wineries in the Chalone AVA
Define the Coriolis Effect and state where it is found
Coriolis Effect: Cold water from Antartica
Cool Breezes into Edna Valley (SLO) and Santa Maria (SLO/SB)
How many wineries and vineyards (grape growing farms) are in the U.S.A. and California?
U.S.A.: 24K farms, 5500+ wineries
California: 4600 farms, 3400 wineries
Differentiate the east and west sides of the Paso Robles AVA