CWAS Study Guide

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CWAS Study Guide
2013-06-20 10:51:47

Study Guide for California Wine Appellation Specialist (CWAS) Certification
Show Answers:

  1. What kind of soil is in Russian River AVA?
    • Goldridge
    • (similar to Kimmeridgean, chalk-lime, fossilized marine life)
  2. DescribeSanta Ynez Valley AVA
    • Within Santa Barbara County and Central Coast AVA
    • Contains Santa Rita Hills
  3. How many Napa Vitners are small (< 10K cases/year) producers?
  4. What is the largest Undivided AVA (no nested AVAs) in California?
    Paso Robles (half way between SF and LA)
  5. How many wineries/growers are there in Mendocino County?
    • 91 wineries
    • 343 Growers
  6. Name the U.S.A.'s first bonded winery
    • Pleasant Valley WineCompany (near Hammondsport in Finger Lakes AVA)
    • established 1860 and still operating today
  7. Name the dominant grapes of Arroyo Grande
    • West: CH, PN
    • East: Zin, CS (prices lower than on western side)
  8. Which AVA overlaps San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara counties?
    Santa Maria
  9. What is Sierra Foothills AVA known for?
    High altitude vineyards
  10. Name the primary grapes in Sierra Foothills AVA
    • Red: Zin (40%), CS (11%), Syrah (10%), Barbera
    • White: CH (even though it does not like heat or the soil)
  11. What % of all California Chardonnay traces its roots back to the Livermore Valley/Wente clone?
    80% (originally brought from Montpellier, France)
  12. Name an AVA known for OLD VINE Negrette, CB, Mourvedre, Zin, PS
    • Negrette: Cienega Valley
    • CB: Chalone, Clarksburg
    • Mourvedre: Lime Kiln
    • Zin: McDowell Valley, Sierra Fotthills, Mokelumne River (Lodi)
    • PS: Guenoc Valley
  13. Map the 11 Mendocino Appellations plus the 2 pending AVAs (Ukiah Valley and Sanel Valley)
  14. Name the 6 AVAs nested within Northern Sonoma AVA
    • Alexander Valley
    • Chalk Hill
    • Dry Creek
    • Green Valley
    • Knights Valley
    • Russian River
  15. What is Calaveras County known for?
    No AVAs but 22 wineries (wine not very good but Murphy's is a cute town)
  16. Name the Warm and cool areas in Sonoma
    • Cool (Zone I): Sonoma Coast, Russian River/Green Valley, Los Carneros
    • Warm (Zone III): Northern Sonoma, contains Knight's Valley (warmest) and Green Valley (coolest)
  17. What is Napa's Coolest AVA?
    Los Carneros
  18. How many wineries are in Benmore Valley AVA?
    0 ("Benmore is no more"; orinally had Geyser Peak winery)
  19. Name the 8 counties in the Sierra Foothills AVA (and which AVAs are in each)
    • Yuba county: North Yuba AVA
    • El Dorado county: California Shenandoah Valley, El DOrado, Fair Play
    • Amador county: California Shenandoah Valley, Fiddletown
    • No AVAs in these 5 counties: Calaveras, Mariposa, Nevada, Placer, Tuolumne
  20. Map the 7 AVAs in San Benito County and name the nested AVAs
  21. Name the AVA that is nested within Sonoma Coast
    Fort Ross - Seaview
  22. Name the 3 Santa Clara County AVAs
    • Pacheco Pass: 1984, M, CS, SB, Black Muscat, Casa de Fruta winer (only 20 of 3200 acres under vine)
    • Santa Clara Valley: 1989, warm, CH, CS, Merlot, Zin, 25 wineries, centered around Morgan Hill
    • San Ysidro: 1990, fairly cool, CH, PN, 0 wineries
  23. Describe Cole Ranch AVA
    • AVA in Mendocino County
    • Smallest AVA in North America
    • Granted 1983
    • Acres (60 of 150 acres under vine, CS, Merlot, Riesling)
    • 1400-1600 feet elevation
  24. Name the AVA that overlaps Yolo, Sacramento, and Solano Counties
    Clarksburg (15 mi south of Sacramento)
  25. What is the largest AVA in California
    • Central Coast, 360+ wineries, 100K of 4M acres under vine
    • (Central Valley is larger but it is not an AVA)
  26. Name the dominant grapes of Western Santa Cruz Mountains AVA
    PN, CH
  27. When was the "Judgement of Paris" and who won?
    • 1976-05-24 (Monday), arranged by Steven Spurrier
    • White: 1973 Chateau Montelena, CH made by Mike Grgich, called "Napa & Alexander Valley" since before AVAs (now would be called North Coast)
    • Red: 1973 Stag's Leap Wine Cellars S.L.V. CS, made by Warren Winiarski
  28. What are the primary grapes of Chalone AVA?
    CH, PN, Old Vine CB
  29. Map Monterey's "thermal rainbow"
  30. Name the river valley that Santa Lucia Highlands overlooks
    Salinas River Valley
  31. What AVA in Lake County shows the greatest promise?
    Red Hills
  32. How much California wine comes from Napa?
  33. Name the 5 counties in the South Coast AVA
  34. Define Transverse Range and state where it is found
    Set of mountain ranges in Santa Barbara County running east to west from the coast
  35. What are the 2 major threats facing Temecula and Cucamonga?
    • Pierce's Disease
    • Urban Sprawl
  36. When was the "Second Coming" of Phylloxera in California?
  37. Which AVAs are nested completely within SLO County/Central Coast?
    • Paso Robles
    • York Mountaiun
    • Edna Valley
    • Arroyo Grande
    • NOT Santa Maria Valley (since it overlaps Santa Barbara County)
  38. Name the 6 Sonoma AVAs that were established in 1983
    • Carneros, Chalk Hill, Dry Creek, Knights Valley, Russian River, Green Valley of Russian River
    • These AVAs plus Alexander Valley (1984) are nested within the Northern Sonoma AVA (1986)
  39. Who is Josh Jensen?
    • Owner of Calera
    • Worked a few days at DRC and 1 day at Ch. Grilleau
    • Went to Oxford for Philosophy
  40. What is the most important AVA in Mendocino County and when was it established?
    • Anderson Valley (1983)
    • First AVA in Mendocino County
  41. What caused the large increase in wineries in Santa Barbara since 1980s?
    • UC Davis Professors Maynard Amerine and Albert Winkler identified the area as ideal for viticulture
    • Wineries: 13 in 1980, > 100 today
    • 4 AVAs: Santa Maria Valley, Santa Ynez (Sta Rita Hills, Happy Canyon)
  42. When was Prohibition?
    • 1918-11-18: Wartime Prohibition Act banned alcohol > 2.75%
    • 1919-01-16: 18th Amendment (effective 1920-01-17) forbade the "manufacture, sale, and transportation of intoxicating liquors" (but did not define "intoxicating liquors", provide penalties, or forbid consumption)
    • 1920: National Prohibition Act (aka Volstead Act) was vetoed by Woodrow Wilson but overridden by Congress. It defined intoxicating liquor as any beverage containing > 0.5% ABV.
    • 1933-12-05: 21st Amendment allowed states to set their own laws governing the sale of alcohol within their borders.
  43. What was the effect of Prohibition?
    The "Noble Experiment" arose from the Temperance Movement. It led to a near-total shutdown of America’s wine industry and the rise of criminal gangs that became rich and were admired by the public despite murder and corruption.
  44. Who was the Volstead act named after?
    Representative Andrew J. Volstead of Minnesota
  45. Who submitted the 21st amendment?
    Senator John Blaine of Wisconsin (1932-12-06)
  46. How many wineries were in California at the start and end of Prohibition?
    • Start: 700
    • End: 160
  47. Which winery thrived during Prohibition?
    The Frenchman Georges de Latour’s Beaulieu Vineyards declared itself the “House of Altar Wine”.
  48. Name the 7 Sub-AVAs of Lodi
    • Big Portugese population
    • Use Conjunctive labeling

    • Cosumnes River (cool)
    • Jahant (cool)
    • Borden Ranch (medium)
    • Mokelumne River (medium)
    • Alta Mesa (warm)
    • Sloughhouse (warmest)
    • Clement Hills (warm)

  49. Map the San Francisco Bay Area Counties and name the 6 within the SFB AVA
  50. Map the 16 AVAs in Napa Valley
  51. Map the Counties in the Central Coast
  52. Map the 5 (+2 pending) AVAs in Lake County
  53. Map the 8 counties in the Sierra Foothills AVA
    • Yuba
    • Nevada
    • Placer
    • El Dorado
    • Amador
    • Calaveras
    • Tuolumne
    • Mariposa

  54. Map the Delta AVAs
  55. Map the 15 Sonoma County AVAs
  56. How many AVAs within Monterey County are nested within the Monterey AVA?  Map them.
  57. Define Conjunctive labeling
    Using both the major AVA and the nested AVA on the label
  58. Name the fastest growing AVA in California
    Paso Robles
  59. When did North Coast become an AVA?
  60. How many AVAs are in San Benito County?
    • 7 AVAs and 11 wineries:
    • Cienega Valley
    • Paicines ("PIE-SEE-NUHS")
    • Lime Kiln
    • Mount Harlan
    • San Benito
    • Pacheco Pass (mostly in Santa Clara County)
    • Chalone (mostly in Monterey County)
  61. Where/What is the transverse range?
    • In Santa Maria Valley AVA (WAR Zone I)
    • North-South Coast Mountains Bend East-West, allowing cool ocean breeze and fog
    • Long Growing Season
  62. What is the 2nd newest AVA in Sonoma County?
    • Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak (Oct 2011)
    • (was submitted as Pine Mountain-Mayacamus but this was fought by Napa Valley Vintners)
    • Spans Mendocino (2/3) and Sonoma (1/3) counties
    • Elevation > 1500 feet
  63. Define Chert soil (in Sta. Rita Hills AVA)
    Micro-crystalline (very fine-grained) sedimentary rock composed of silicon dioxide (SiO2)
  64. How many Sonoma AVAs were NOT established in 1983?  Name them.
    • Nine
    • 1981: Sonoma Valley
    • 1984: Alexander Valley
    • 1985: Sonoma Mountain
    • 1986: Northern Sonoma
    • 1987: Sonoma Coast
    • 2002: Rockpile
    • 2003: Bennett Valley
    • 2011: Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak
    • 2012: Fort Ross-Seaview
  65. What does Los Carneros mean?
    The Rams
  66. What are the primary grapes of El Dorado AVA?
    • Red:  CS, Zin, Merlot, Syrah, PS, Barbera
    • White: CH
  67. When was the North Coast AVA established?
    • 1983
    • 3 million acres
  68. Describe the North Yuba AVA
    • 1985
    • CS, Zin, Syrah, Barbera
    • Renaissance Winery founded in 1971 by a religous group
  69. How big is Sonoma County and how many AVAs does it contain?
    • 47 miles long X 52 miles wide
    • 15 AVAs
  70. What is the newest AVA in Sonoma County?
    • Fort Ross-Seaview (Jan 2012)
    • Nested within the Sonoma Coast AVA
    • Above the Fog (900-1800 feet elevation)
    • Zone II
  71. What soil is found in the Red Hills AVA?
    Red volcanic soils
  72. What vineyard problems does Ben Lomond have?
    • Pierce's Disease
    • Hungry Deer
  73. What mission was established in 1823 in the town of Sonoma?
    San Francisco Solano (Franciscan mission)
  74. How many missions did the Spanish build?
    • The Spanish built 21 missions (religious organization), 4 presidios (military fort), and 2 pueblos (permanent village), on the El Camino Real
    • From Mission San Diego to Mission Sonoma
    • Built over 55 years (from 1769 to 1823)
  75. Name the 2 AVAs nested within Russian River AVA
    • Green Valley
    • Chalk Hill
  76. Name America's oldest winery
    Casa Madero ("timber" in Spanish), established 1597 (in Coahuila, Mexico)
  77. Name the last (and northern-most) mission built by the Franciscans
    • 1823:  San Francisco de Solano
    • The site of Sonoma's town square
  78. Name the 11(+2 pending) AVAs in Mendocino County
    • Anderson Valley
    • Cole Ranch
    • Potter Valley
    • McDowell Valley
    • Mendocino Ridge
    • Redwood Valley
    • Yorkville Highlands
    • Mendocino (AVA)
    • Dos Rios
    • Covelo
    • Pine-Mountain-Cloverdale Peak
    • PENDING:  Ukiah Valley and Sanel Valley
  79. Name the most widely planted grape in Paso Robles
  80. Name the coolest AVA in Sonoma
    Green Valley
  81. What do all AVAs in the Sierra Foothills AVA share?
    • Altitude
    • Diurnal swings
  82. Name 2 East-West rivers in Santa Barbara County
    • Santa Maria River
    • Santa Ynez River (draws cool air inland, weak fog)
    • Flow from southwest to east
    • Santa Barbara County has the longest hang time in California
  83. Name the primary grapes of Carmel Valley
    CS, Merlot
  84. Describe events in the life of Agoston Haraszthy (Father of California Viticulture)

    • 1812: Born in Pest, Hungary
    • 1840: Moves to Wisconsin; hunter and entrepreneur
    • 1850: Moves to San Diego, elected sheriff, city marshal, and member of the California State Assembly
    • 1852: Buys real estate near Mission San Francisco de Asís (Mission Dolores)
    • 1854: The first U.S. assayer (determines composition and value of ores)
    • 1857: founds Buena Vista Winery in Sonoma and hires Charles Krug as winemaker
    • 1858: Writes “Report on Grapes and Wine of California
    • 1861: Introduced 350+ European varieties to California
    • 1868: Moves to Nicaragua
    • 1869: Disappears (eaten by alligators?)
  85. Name the mountaiun range that divides San Benito and Montery Counties
    Gavilan Mountains
  86. Name the largest AVA in Sonoma County
    1987: Sonoma Coast (driven by Sonoma-Cutrer)
  87. Name the AVAs nested within San Benito AVA
    • Cienega Valley (including Lime Kiln)
    • Paicines
  88. Name the winery that won the 1976 Judgment of Paris (for red wine)
    • #1 Stag's Leap Wine Cellars 1973
    • #2 Château Mouton-Rothschild 1970
    • #3 Château Montrose 1970
    • #4 Château Haut-Brion 1970
    • #5 Ridge Vineyards Monte Bello 1971
    • #6 Château Leoville Las Cases 1971
    • #7 Heitz Wine Cellars Martha's Vineyard 1970
    • #8 Clos Du Val Winery 1972
    • #9 Mayacamas Vineyards 1971
    • #10 Freemark Abbey Winery 1969
  89. Name the winery that won the 2006 Re-Judgment of Paris (for red wine)
    • #1 Ridge Monte Bello 1971 (was #5 in the 1976 Judgement of Paris)
    • #2 Stag's Leap Wine Cellars 1973
    • #3/#4 (tie) Heitz Martha's Vineyard 1970
    • #3/#4 (tie) Mayacamas 1971
    • #5 Clos du Val 1972
    • #6 Chateau Mouton-Rothschild 1970
    • #7 Chateau Montrose 1970
    • #8 Chateau Haut-Brion 1970
    • #9 Chateau Leoville-Las-Cases 1971
    • #10 Freemark Abbey 1969
  90. Name the winery that won the 1976 Judgment of Paris (for white wine)
    • #1 Chateau Montelena 1973
    • #2 Meursault Charmes Roulot 1973
    • #3 Chalone Vineyard 1974
    • #4 Spring Mountain Vineyard 1973
    • #5 Beaune Clos des Mouches Joseph Drouhin 1973
    • #6 Freemark Abbey Winery 1972
    • #7 Batard-Montrachet Ramonet-Prudhon 1973
    • #8 Puligny-Montrachet Les Pucelles Domaine Leflaive 1972
    • #9 Veedercrest Vineyards 1972
    • #10 David Bruce Winery 1973
  91. Name the primary grapes of Lime Kiln AVA
    Old Vine Mourvedre and Zinfandel
  92. Name the AVA nested within Cienega Valley AVA
    Lime Kiln
  93. Name the 2 wineries in the Paicines AVA
    • Donati
    • Scheid ("Sh-I-de")
    • Abandoned by Almaden
  94. Name the break in the coastal range that allows fog and cool breezes into the Russian River AVA
    Petaluma Gap
  95. Who is the largest producer in Lake County?
  96. What are the most widely planted grapes in High Valley AVA?
    • #1 Bordeaux Varietals (CS, CF, M, PV, Malbec)
    • #2 Zin, PS
    • #3 GSM
    • #4 Tempranillo, PN
  97. Name the most widely planted grapes of Sonoma County
    • Red: CS (20%), PN (17%), Merlot (13%), Zin (8%)
    • White: CH (27%), SB (4%)
  98. What was the first winery to open after Prohibition ended?
    1933: Bargetto Winery (Santa Cruz Mountains AVA)
  99. What is the financial impact of wine in Napa?
    • Within Napa: $11B and 40K jobs
    • Beyond Napa:  $42.4B (=34% of CA impact)
  100. Which AVA is divided by the San Andreas Fault?
    Cienega Valley
  101. Which South Coast AVA winery claims to be California's oldest winery?
    • Thomas Vineyards
    • Part of original Rancho Cucamonga
  102. What AVA overlaps San Bernadino and Riverside counties?
    1995: Cucamonga Valley
  103. What percent is CS of all wines from Napa?
    • Value:  55%
    • Harvest: 40% (12% of California)
  104. How many people are employed in the California wine industry?
    • As of 2010:
    • Employed:  330,000
    • Tourists: 20.7 million
    • 63 tourists/employee
  105. Name 2 AVAs within San Diego County
    • 1981: San Pasqual Valley, 1 winery (Orfillia), 4th AVA ever granted
    • 2005: Ramona Valley, 16 wineries
    • Hot climate (WAR Zone IV)
  106. Which AVA has a 5000 acre protected area (citrus/vineyard zone)?
    Temecula Valley AVA
  107. Who was the original (1984) Rhone Ranger?
    • Randall Graham
    • Santa Cruz Mountains AVA
  108. What was the first single winery AVA in U.S.A.?
    • Guenoc Valley (Langtry Estate)
    • Also the first AVA in Lake County
  109. When was Santa Clara Valley AVA established?
  110. Name the top varieties in Napa (in descending order)
    • #1 CS
    • #2 CH
    • #3 Merlot
    • #4 SB
    • #5 PN
    • #6 Zin
    • #7 Syrah
  111. What vintner submitted the San Francisco Bay AVA and why?
    • Carolyn Wente
    • Easier to sell SFB name rather than Livermore Valley
  112. State 2 reasons why Edna Valley's climate differs from Paso Robles climate
    • Cool sea breezes
    • Morning Fog
    • York Mountain is 7 miles from the the ocean at Templeton Gap
    • Paso Robles is 20 miles from the ocean at Templeton Gap
  113. Why is Edna Valley cool?
    • 5 miles from Pacific Ocean
    • Gap in coastal mountains where Los Osos Valley meets Morro Bay
    • Cool sea breezes and morning fog
    • Big diurnal range
    • Winkler-Amerine Region II
  114. Name the 5 AVAs of San Luis Obispo County
    • Paso Robles
    • York Mountain
    • Edna Valley
    • Arroyo Grande ("Large Stream")
    • Santa Maria Valley
  115. What soils does Edna Valley have?
    • Topsoil:  Volcanic, Black Humas, Clay
    • Subsoil: Calcareous
  116. Which 2 deep currents impact Santa Barbara?
    • California current from the north
    • Humboldt current from the south
  117. What was the first AVA in Sierra Foothills?
    Fiddletown AVA (in Amador County)
  118. Name 2 AVAs in San Joaquin County
    • River Junction
    • Tracy Hills
  119. How many AVAs are in Monterey County?
    • Nine
    • Santa Lucia Highlands (SLH is best AVA)
    • Arroyo Seco
    • Carmel Valley
    • Chalone
    • Hames Valley
    • Monterey
    • San Antonio
    • San Bernabe
    • San Lucas
  120. How many grape growers and wineries are in Lake County?
    • Growers: 140
    • Wineries: 29+
  121. How much wine does California produce?
    • 199.6 million cases
    • 89% of USA production
    • $18.5 billion (about $7.72/bottle)
  122. Name the 3 Santa Cruz County AVAs
    • Santa Cruz Mountains
    • Ben Lomond
    • Santa Clara Valley
  123. Name the AVA that overlaps San Benito and Monterey Counties
  124. What was America's first International Gold Medal for wine?
    • 1844: C.H. Wente and James Concannon planted first vines in Livermore Valley
    • 1889: Paris Exposition
  125. What are the top grapes in the Sierra Foothills?
    • Red: Zinfandel
    • White: CH
  126. What 3 innovations were developed in Livermore Valley?
    • Overhead irrigation
    • Mechanical harvesting
    • Roller crushing in the vineyard
  127. What southern California county is not within or contain any AVA?
    • Ventura Country
    • between Santa Barbara and L.A.
    • 13 wineries
  128. What is the largest AVA in Lake County?
    Clear Lake AVA
  129. Name the only winery of Mount Harlan AVA
    • Calera
    • (caliza means limestone in Spanish)
  130. What does "Estate bottled" mean in California?
    • Vineyard and Winery are in the same AVA
    • Winery must own or control the vineyard
    • Winery must crush, ferment, finish, age, and bottle wine in a continuous process
    • Does not mean the wine is necessarily better
  131. Name the primary grapes of Edna Valley
    CH, PN, Rhone varietals
  132. What was the first AVA in California?
    1981: Napa
  133. What is the Great Valley Sequence and the Franciscan Formation?
    • Great Valley Sequence = volcanos
    • Franciscan Formation = ocean floor

    The Pacific Plate went under the North American Plate resulting in the Mayacamus (sedimentary soil) and Vaca (volcanic soil) mountains
  134. How did the San Andreas Fault get formed?
    • Triple junction of:
    • Pacific Plate
    • North American Plate
    • Farallon Plate
  135. Describe the Sierra Foothills AVA
    • High elevation (especially Fair Play AVA)
    • Hot days, Cool nights
    • Almost entirely red wine (old vine Zin, Rhone varietals, CS)
  136. Describe Paso Robles (Spanish for oak steps) AVA
    • Established in 1983
    • More Calcareous soil than any other AVA (most on east side)
    • 20 miles from Templeton Gap
    • WAR Zone II and III
    • Hot days, cool nights
    • 180+ wineries
    • Important grape nursery at Tablas Creek winery
  137. Where and when were California's first vines planted?
    First vines planted in 1769 at Mission San Diego de Alcala (first mission) by Padre Junipero Sierra
  138. Name the primary grapes of Santa Lucia Highlands
    PN, CH, Syrah
  139. Which county has the largest selection of grapes in California?
    Monterey County
  140. Where is the Templeton Gap?
    Follows Highway 46 to the town of Templeton (Paso Robles AVA in San Luis Obispo County)
  141. Which towns does Sta Rita Hills lie between?
    Lompoc and Buelton
  142. What is regulated?
    • Mandatory: origin of grapes
    • Optional: varietals, vintage, alcohol
  143. What are the regulations for varietal content?
  144. What are the regulations for vintage?
    • Vintage is not allowed if America is on label
    • 85%
    • AVA: 95%
  145. What are the regulations for grape origin?
    • Country/State/County: 75% (100% in California)
    • AVA: 85%
    • Vineyard: 95%
  146. What are the regulations for alcohol content?
    • 7%-14%:  Table Wine or +/- 1.5% if on label
    • > 14%: +/- 1.0% if over 14%
  147. When was Inglenook Winery (in Rutherford) established?  By who?  What was he known for?
    • Established in 1879 by Captain Gustave Niebaum
    • First Bordeaux style winery in the U.S.
  148. Name the sub-AVA where San Francisco Bay AVA was drafted
    Livermore Valley
  149. Name the AVA within San Francisco Bay that is warm, windy, and fog-free
    Livermore Valley
  150. Name the most widely planted grape in Lodi
  151. How big is Napa?
    • 35 miles long X 4 miles wide
    • about 15% the size of Bordeaux (45K acres vers 290K acres)
  152. What is the only producer in Ben Lomond?
    • Beauregard Vineyards
    • (Chardonnay is like a Premier Cru Chablis)
  153. Are more red or white grapes grown in California?
    • 1982: 55% white / 45% red
    • 2011: 38% white / 62% red
  154. What is the world's largest wine appellation?
    • 2009: Upper Mississippi River Valley
    • 30K square miles in MN, WI, IA, IL
  155. Who said Oregon is the best place to grow PN?  What was he known for?
    • Andre Tchelistcheff - hired by George de Latour in 1938
    • "Dean of California wine" ushered in the modern era of winemaking
  156. What is Napa's warmest AVA?
    St. Helena
  157. Name the 5 counties and 9 AVAs within the South Coast
    • Los Angeles County: Malibu-Newton Canyon, Saddlerock Malibu Canyon, Leona Valley, Sierra Pelona Valley, Antelope Valley of the California High Desert (also in Kern County)
    • San Diego County: San Pasqual Valley, Ramona Valley
    • Riverside County: Temecula Valley, Cucamonga (overlap)
    • San Bernadino County: Cucamonga (overlap)
    • Orange County: no AVAs
  158. What type of climate does Napa have?
    • Mediterranean
    • Long growing season
    • No summer rain
    • Consistent vintages and reduced risk for vineyard disease
  159. Name the 4 counties that surround Sonoma County
    • Mendocino
    • Lake
    • Napa
    • Marin
  160. Describe Anderson Valley AVA
    • Mendocino County
    • 1983
    • 600 acres planted
    • PN, sparkling wines (3), Gewurztraminer and Riesling (Alsatian festival)
    • Wine diurnal range
  161. What grapes are grown in San Antonio AVA?
    • Near Paso Robles
    • Bordeaux and Rhone varietals
  162. Which AVA in the Sierra Foothills has the most wineries?
    Half (> 60) of all Sierra Foothills wineries reside in the El Dorado AVA
  163. True or False?

    If the nested AVA is listed, Napa Valley must also be listed on the label.
    • True
    • 1986 state law sponsored by the Napa Valley Vitners
  164. What are the mos important grapes in Guenoc Valley?
    • Old Vine Petite Sirah
    • Bordeaux varietals
  165. What wine is worth looking for in Clarksburg (a Delta AVA)?
    Old Vine Chenin Blanc
  166. What is the industry's most rigorous land use program?
    • Napa Green Certified Land
    • 19K acres certified
    • 45K acres enrolled
  167. Name the 4 Solano County AVAs
    • 1982: Suisun ("Sue-Soon")
    • 1983: Solano Green Valley
    • 1984: Clarksburg (overlaps Sacramento and Yolo counties)
    • 1988: Wild Horse (overlaps Napa County)
  168. Name the AVA that overlaps Santa Cruz and Santa Clara counties
    Santa Clara Valley AVA
  169. How many AVAs are there (as of August 2012)?
    • U.S.A.: 213
    • California: 114 (38 of 58 counties in CA have AVAs)
    • 53% of all AVAs are in California
  170. Name the warmest AVA in Sonoma
    Knights Valley
  171. Name the 6 counties that make up the North Coast
    • Mendocino 
    • Lake
    • Sonoma
    • Napa
    • Marin
    • Solano
  172. What AVAs are known for sparkling wine in Sonoma County?
    • Green Valley
    • Los Carneros
  173. As of 2010, how much wine is produced in California?  In the U.S.A.?
    • U.S.A.: 677 million gallons (8.4% of world's production; 4th largest producer)
    • California: 199.6 million cases = 474M gallons, $18.5 billion
  174. Name the 3 wineries in the Chalone AVA
    • Chalone
    • Brosseau
    • Michaud
  175. Define the Coriolis Effect and state where it is found
    • Coriolis Effect:  Cold water from Antartica
    • Cool Breezes into Edna Valley (SLO) and Santa Maria (SLO/SB)
  176. How many wineries and vineyards (grape growing farms) are in the U.S.A. and California?
    • U.S.A.:  24K farms, 5500+ wineries
    • California:  4600 farms, 3400 wineries
  177. Differentiate the east and west sides of the Paso Robles AVA
    • West: 45 inches rain; igneous, calcareous, metamorphic soils
    • East: 8 inches rain; sedimentary, calcareous, clay/sand/silt soils
  178. State 2 reasons for York Mountain and West Paso Robles being cooler than East Paso Robles
    • Elevation
    • Templeton Gap
    • Ocean
  179. When was the Sierra Foothills AVA established?
  180. What is Robert Mondavi known for?
    Napa Cheerleader (1966)
  181. Who is John Daniel, Jr?
    Inherited Inglenook in 1939
  182. What is a good vineyard in Bennett Valley AVA?
    Dragonfly Vineyard
  183. Name the 5 major wine regions in California
    • North Coast AVA
    • Central Coast AVA
    • South Coast AVA
    • Sierra Foothills AVA
    • Central Valley (not an AVA)
  184. Name the primary grapes of Happy Canyon
    Bordeaux and Rhone varieties
  185. What are the top varietals in Mendocino County (by acres under vine)?
    • Red:  CS, PN, Zin
    • White: CH, SB, Gewurztraminer
  186. Name 2 unique features of the Fair Play AVA
    • Elevation: highest in the Sierra Foothills, 2K-3K feet
    • Soil: Sandy loam over granite monolith
  187. Describe the Fair Play AVA
    • AVA: established 2001
    • Wineries: 21
    • Grapes: Syrah, Zin, Barbera, Petite Sirah
  188. What is California Shenandoah Valley AVA known for?
    • AVA: established 1987
    • Wineries: 32
    • Grapes:  Zin and Rhone varieties

    Renwood Granpere vineyard once had the oldest Zin in California but now it is just a brand

    Sutter Creek is a cool western town to visit
  189. Who produced California's first wines from the mission grape?
    1783: Franciscans at the San Juan Capistrano Mission
  190. What was the first winery in the country to make (only) Rhone varietals?
    1989: (John) Alban, one of the notable producers of Edna Valley
  191. Name the 6 counties in the North Coast AVA
    • Mendocino
    • Lake
    • Sonoma
    • Napa
    • Solano
    • Marin

  192. Name for Sonoma in Native American Indian (and a Jack London novel)
    Valley of the Moon
  193. How many wineries are in San Ysidro AVA?
    0 (but this sub-AVA of Santa Clara Valley AVA does have 2 large vineyards)
  194. Describe Rockpile AVA
    • Established: 2002
    • Grapes: Zinfandel, Petite Sirah
    • Elevation: 800-2100 feet
    • Climate: Warm
    • Wineries: 2
  195. Name 2 AVAs nested within the Santa Ynez AVA
    • Sta Rita Hils (marine influence)
    • Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara (inland)
    • Pending: Ballard Canyon (between the above 2 AVAs)
  196. Name one of the largest contiguous vineyards in the world
    • San Bernabe vineyard in the San Bernabe AVA
    • 8100 acres, sandy soil, owned by Delicato
    • first vines planted in 1842
  197. Describe Santa Maria Valley AVA
    • Location:  1/3 in San Luis Obispo county and 2/3 in Santa Barbara county
    • Climate: Winkler-Amerine Region I (Cool), due to Transverse Range and Coriolis Effect
    • Soils: Chamise (sandy loam, loam, clay loam, or shaly loam surface layer and a shaly clay subsoil)
    • Grapes:  West (PN, CH), East (Rhone varietals, CS)
  198. Name the 4 AVAs nested within Los Angeles country and the 1 AVA that overlaps it
    • 1996: Malibu-NewtonCanyon (1 winery: Rosenthal Estate)
    • 2006: Saddle Rock Malibu Canyon (1 winery: Semler Estate)
    • 2008: Leona Valley
    • 2010: Sierra Pelona Valley
    • 2011: Antelope Valley of the California High Desert (spans L.A. and Kern counties)
  199. Describe Bennett Valley AVA
    • Established:  2003
    • Location:  Sonoma County
    • Climate: Moderately Cool
    • Soils: Volcanic, Clay
    • Grapes: Merlot (26%), PN (24%), Syrah (15%), CH (20%)
    • Wineries: 4
  200. What is the Franciscan Complex?
    • Uplifted Oceanic and Continental Crust that formed 199M+ years ago
    • Sedimentary and volcanic soils over bedrock
  201. Define Humbolt Current
    • Cold water from South that hits Santa Barbara
    • Also known as Peru Current
  202. Name the first AVA defined by a mountain range
    • AVA: Santa Cruz Mountains
    • Established: 1981 (same as Napa)
    • Wineries: 80+
  203. Define Coriolis Effect
    • Coastal cooling at Santa Barbara
    • Winds blowing from the north move warm surface water offshore; colder waters are drawn to the surface
    • Driven by earth's west to east rotation (counterclockwise from the north pole)
  204. What is Chamisal?
    • A type of bush
    • A vineyard/producer in Edna Valley
  205. Name the most widely planted grapes of Sta Rita Hills
    Pinot Noir (60%), Chardonnay
  206. Who planted the first vineyard in Napa?  When?
    • 1838: George Yount (personal vineyard)
    • 1854: John Patchett (commercial vineyard, first made wine in 1857)
    • 1858: Patchett hired Charles Krug as his winemaker
  207. Why was "Santa Rita Hills" renamed to "Sta. Rita Hills"?
    Winery in Chile making cheap ($5) wine had the same name
  208. Name 2 wineries in the Fort Ross-Seaview AVA
    • Failla
    • Flowers
    • Fort Ross
    • Hirsch
    • MarcassinMartinelli
    • Pahlmeyer
    • Peter Michael
    • Wild Hog
  209. Why is Sta. Rita Hills cooler than Happy Canyon?
    Morning and evening fog (12 miles from Pacific Ocean)
  210. Map the 5 Lake County AVAs
  211. How many AVAs are in Mendocino County?
    11 + 2 pending
  212. Name the 5th largest AVA in California
    1983: Paso Robles
  213. Name the 3 primary grapes of Mount Harlan AVA
    PN, CH, Viognier
  214. Name the most widely planted grapes in Paso Robles
    CS (38%), Merlot (15%), Syrah (10%), Zin (9%)
  215. Discuss 2 competing proposals for dividing the Paso Robles AVA
    • Divide by Highway 101 into 2 AVAs
    • Divide by Terroir into up to 11 AVAs
  216. What does "Dry Farming" mean?
    • No irrigation
    • Does not mean no water
  217. When was the U.C. Davis Viticulture & Enology department started?
    1935 (after Prohibition)
  218. How did Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara get it's name?
    It was the only still in the county (east end of Santa Ynez valley) during prohibition
  219. Who named Santa Maria Valley AVA?
    • mid-1800s: Juan Pacifico Ontiverus, a rancher, in honor of Mary
    • 1882: Central City changed its name to Santa Maria
  220. Name Nap's oldest wineries
    • 1861: Charles Krug, St. Helena
    • 1862: Jacob Schram, Schramsberg
    • 1876: Beringer (Napa's oldest continuously operating winery)
    • 1879: Gustav Niebaum, Inglenook
  221. What are the most widely planted grapes in Red Hills AVA?
    • 1. Bordeaux varietals (CF, CS, SB)
    • 2. Petite Sirah (near Guenoc)
    • 3. Syrah, Zin
  222. What grapes are in Coro Mendocino?
    • 40%-70%: Zinfandel is mandatory
    • Not to exceed Zin %: Primitivo, Grenache, Syrah, Carignane, Petite Sirah, Sangiovese, Barbera, Dolcetto, Charbono
    • Up to 10%: Any other vinifera grape
  223. Who was the first to plant grapes in California? Where and When?
    • Padre Junipero Sierra
    • San Diego
    • 1769
  224. Name the most widely planted grape in Monterey County
  225. Name the dominant grape of Eastern Santa Cruz Mountains AVA
    Cabernet Sauvignon
  226. Name the AVA that overlaps Santa Clara and San Benito counties
    Pacheco Pass
  227. How many wineries in Napa are certified Green?
  228. When was the Guenoc Valley AVA established?
    1981 (same as Napa)
  229. What does "bench" mean (e.g., Rutherford Bench)
    Soil between a slope and a valley floor
  230. When were the 9 AVAs in Monterey County established?
    • 1982:  Carmel Valley, Chalone
    • 1983: Arroyo Seco
    • 1984: Monterey
    • 1987: San Lucas
    • 1992: Santa Lucia Highlands
    • 1994: Hames Valley
    • 2004: San Bernabe
    • 2006: San Antonio
  231. What AVAs are known for Zinfandel in Sonoma County?
    • Rock Pile
    • Dry Creek
  232. State the counties and Valley Lodi is within
    • San Joaquin and Sacramento Counties
    • San Joaquin Valley
    • Also known as the Delta
  233. What are the main grape varieties in the San Francisco Bay AVA?  Why?
    • CH (27%), CS (20%), Merlot (15%)
    • These are the main grapes of Livermore Valley which includes 3/4 of the SFB AVA acreage
    • Livermore Valley grapes:  White (CH, SB, Semillon), Red (PS, Zin, Bordeaux varietals, Rhone varietals, Italian varietals)
  234. Who started the first commercial winery in Napa?  When?
    1861: Charles Krug
  235. Name the only non-Contiguous AVA in America
    • Mendocino Ridge AVA
    • 1200 feet or higher
    • Everything lower falls into the Anderson Falley or Mendocino County appellations
  236. When was the Agricultural Preserve passed in Napa?
  237. Which Winkler-Amerine Regions does Arroyo Grande AVA have?
    • I, II, III
    • Very wide range for a single AVA
  238. Describe York Mountain AVA
    • Established:  1983
    • Location:  San Luis Obispo County, west of Paso Robles
    • Climate: WAR I (Cool), Templeton Gap
    • Soils: Sandstone Clay, Some limestone, Sandy Clay Loam
    • Wineries: 4
  239. What is the tallest peak in Napa?
    • Mount Saint Helena
    • 4000 feet
    • Separates Calistoga from Lake County
    • Note:  Atlas Peak has the highest vineyards
  240. What U.S. Agency regulates wine?
    • Treasury Department
    • < 2002:  BATF (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms)
    • 2002 +: TTB (Alcohol and Tobacco Tax & Trade Bureau)
  241. What are the primary grapes of Sonoma County?
    • Red:  CS (20%), PN (17%), Merlot (13%), Zin (8%)
    • White: CH (27%), SB (4%)
  242. Name the 5 largest AVAs in California and their size.
    • Central Coast: 4M acres
    • North Coast: 3M acres
    • Sierra Foothills: 2.6M acres
    • South Coast: 115K
    • Paso Robles: 660K (largest undivided AVA)
    • Note: Central Valley appellation is not an AVA
  243. What are Big Valley and Kelsey Bench known for?
    • Relatively low elevation (1330-1600 feet)
    • Both are pending AVAs in Lake County
    • Grapes: White (SB, CH, Viogner, Riesling), Red (CF, Zin, Merlot)
  244. Name the soil type shared by Mount Harlan and Chalone
  245. What AVAs are known for CS in Sonoma County?
    • Alexander Valley
    • Knights Valley
  246. What does Temecu mean?
    • Where the sun shines though the mist
    • Pronounced "Tem-a-Sue"
  247. Name the primary grapes of Mount Harlan and Chalone
    CH, PN
  248. Name some Vitus Lambrusca ("foxy grape") varieties
    • Red: Concord
    • Pink: Catawba
    • White: Niagara
    • Hybrids:  Agawam, Alexander, Onaka
  249. Name a Vitus Rotundifolia variety
    Green: Scuppernong

    note:  Family: Vitaceae, Genus:  Vitis, Subgenus:  Muscadinia, Species: Vitis Rotundifolia
  250. Name a Vitis Aestivalis ("summer grape") variety
    • Red: Norton
    • official grape of the State of Missouri
    • In 2009 Riedel designed stemware specifically for wine made from the Norton grape
  251. Name 3 grape species whose berry is used to make wine other than Vitis vinifera
    • Vitus Lambrusca
    • Vitus Rotundifolia
    • Vitis Aestivalis
  252. Name 3 grape species used for rootstock
    • Vitis Berlandieri
    • Vitis Riparia
    • Vitis Rupestris
  253. What was the Bracero Program?
    • Laws and diplomatic agreements for the importation of temporary contract laborers from Mexico to the United States
    • Initiated by an August 1942 exchange of diplomatic notes
    • Named for the Spanish term bracero, meaning manual laborer ("one who works using his arms")
  254. What year were the Mendocino Lightning Fires?
    • June 20 - July 19 2008
    • 131 Fires, 54,817 acres, 30 days
    • This was shortly after veraison, making the grape vines susceptible to smoke taint
    • For methods of dealing with smoke taint see
  255. What aromas and flavors result from smoke taint?
    Gamy, spicy, smoky, smoked meat, burnt, charred, ash, dirty, cigar box, charcoal, bacon, truffle, coffee, barbecue, campfire, medicinal, woody and burnt rubber
  256. Name a wine that flaunted the Mendocino smoke taint
    Phillips Hill “Ring of Fire” Pinot Noir
  257. What state required every male to plant and tend to at least 10 grape vines?  When?
    1619:  Virginia law
  258. List important events related to the California wine industry that occurred in the first half of the 1800s
    • 1823: Franciscans found San Francisco de Solano
    • 1839: George Yount is first settler in Napa and plants first vineyard there
    • 1848: Gold Rush and Mexican Cession
    • 1849: "Count" Agoston Haraszthy arrives in Sonoma to found Bueno Vista Winery.
  259. List important events related to the California wine industry that occurred in the second half of the 1800s
    • 1861: After working at Buena Vista in Sonoma, Charles Krug moved to St. Helena and forms Napa's oldest winery
    • 1862: Jacob Schram starts Schramsberg
    • 1873: Phylloxera was discoverd in Sonoma (V. Riparia to the rescue)
    • 1876: Beringer founded - Napa's oldest continuously-operated winery
    • 1879: Gustav Niebaum founds Inglenook