phys-HEENT 1

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phys-HEENT 1
2013-06-16 14:40:14
phys exam

phys- HEENT 1
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  1. _____ spinal nerves
    _____ pairs of CNs
    • 31
    • 12
  2. basic functions of the NS-
    • Sensory -  gathers info
    • Integrative - information is brought together
    • Motor - responds to signals, homeostasis
  3. NS is divided based on:
    structure and function
  4. afferent neurons:
    efferent neurons:
    • Afferent neurons:
    • --Inform CNS about conditions in both the external and internal environment
    • --At its peripheral ending, there is a Sensory Receptor that generates Action Potentials in response to stimulus
    • Efferent neurons:
    • --Carry instructions from CNS to effector organs – muscles and glands
    • --Lie primarily in PNS
  5. interneurons-
    found in:
    lie btwn:
    responsible for:
    • Found entirely within CNS
    • Lie between Afferent and Efferent neurons
    • Responsible for:
    • ---Integrating afferent information and formulating an efferent response
    • ---Interconnections between interneurons are responsible for higher mental functions associated with the “mind”
  6. what are the component of a neuron?
    • Soma or cell body: contains nucleus &   machinery of cell 
    • Dendrites: receive messages from other neurons  and conduct electrical impulses toward the cell body 
    • Axon: is the long tubelike portion of the neuron   that   carries information away  from the cell body. It is the   conductive part of the neuron.
  7. supporting cells of the NS:
  8. Neuroglia-
    unlike neurons, they:
    serve as:
    4 major types of cells:
    • glial cells
    • they do not initiate or conduct nerve impulses
    • do communicate with neurons and among themselves via chemical signals
    • serves as connective tissue of CNS physically, metabolically, & functionally support interneurons
    • astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells
  9. Astrocytes:
    • Named for starlike shape (astro = “star”)
    • Most abundant glial cells
    • Main “glue” of CNS – holds neurons together
    • Guide neurons during fetal brain
    • development
    • Induce capillaries of brain to undergo changes that aid in establishment of blood-brain barrier
    • Important in repair of brain injuries and in neural scar formation
    • Play role in neurotransmitter activity
    • ---Take up and degrade Glutamate and GABA
    • Take up excess K+ from brain ECF
    • ---Helps maintain optimal ion conditions for neural excitability
    • Along with other glial cells – enhance synapse formation and modify synaptic transmission
  10. Oligodendrogytes
    Form myelin sheaths around axons in CNS
  11. Microglia
    • Immune defense cells of the CNS
    • In resting state release low levels of growth factors that help neurons and other glial cells survive and thrive
    • ---Nerve Growth Factor = helps neurons and glial cells survive
  12. Ependymal cells:
    • Line internal, fluid-filled cavities of the CNS
    • In ventricles of brain, help form and circulate cerebrospinal fluid
  13. synaptic transmission:
    dendrite --> cell body ---> along axon ---> synapse (gap)
  14. to complete the signal, what is released at the gap to signal the next neuron?
  15. the CNS is protected by what 3 protective & nourishing membranes:
    • the meninges.
    • 1. dura mater
    • 2. arachnoid mater
    • 3. pia mater

    dura mater on top
  16. brain floats in what?
    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  17. function of the cranial meninges:
    • protect the brain
    • form supporting framework
    • enclose fluid-filled cavity: subarachnoid space
  18. major function of the CSF?
    • MF: Serves as a shock-absorbing fluid to prevent brain from bumping against hard skull
    • other functions:
    • Exchange of materials between neural cells and interstitial fluid surrounding brain
    • Formed primarily by choroid plexuses
    • Richly vascularized masses of pia matter tissue that dip into pockets formed by ependymal cells
    • CSF forms as a result of selective transport mechanisms across membranes of choroid plexuses
  19. function of the BBB?
    • Protects brain from chemical fluctuations in blood
    • --Strictly limits exchange between blood and brain
    • Minimizes possibility that harmful blood-borne substances might reach central nervous tissue
    • Prevents certain circulating hormones that could also act as neurotransmitters from reaching brain
    • Limits use of drugs for treatment of brain and spinal cord disorders
    • --Many drugs cannot penetrate BBB
  20. CNS enables you to:
    • Subconsciously regulate your internal environment by neural means
    • Experience emotions
    • Voluntarily control your movements
    • Be consciously aware of your own body and your surroundings
    • Engage in other higher cognitive processes such as thought and memory
  21. the brain consists of the:
    • forebrain
    • cerebellum
    • brain stem
  22. what are the components of the forebrain?
    • cerebrum
    • --basal nuclei
    • --cerebral cortex
    • Diencephalon
    • --hypothalamus
    • --thalamus
  23. cerebrum:
    makes up ____ of total brain weight
    divided into ___ halves, connected by the:
    inner core houses:
    outer surface is:
    • highly developed
    • 80%
    • 2, corpus callosum
    • (2 halves= R and L hemispheres)
    • basal nuclei
    • highly convoluted cerebral cortex
  24. cerebral cortex contains a thin outer shell of _____ that covered each hemisphere
    covers a thick central core of _______
    lobes of the brain:
    • gray matter
    • white matter
    • occipital, temporal, parietal, frontal
  25. functions of each lobes of the brain:
    • frontal: reasoning, thinking, language
    • -3 main functions:
    • ---- voluntary motor acitivity
    • ---- speaking ability
    • ---- elaboration of thought
    • parietal: touch, pain, relation of body parts (somatosensory), Receive and process sensory input, Somatosensory processing
    • temporal: hearing, Initial reception of auditory (sound) sensation
    • occipital: vision, Carries out initial processing of visual input
  26. primary motor cortex-
    primary controls:
    • Located in frontal lobe
    • Confers voluntary control over movement produced by skeletal muscles
    • Primarily controls muscles on the opposite side of the body
    • Motor homunculus
    • -Depicts location and relative amount of motor cortex devoted to output to muscles of each body part
  27. supplementary motor area-
    plays role in:
    • Plays preparatory role in programming complex sequences of movement
    • Complex patterns of movement:
    • --Opening or closing hand
  28. Premotor cortex-
    imp for:
    Important in orienting the body and arms toward a specific target
  29. Posterior parietal cortex-
    if one is damaged:
    • Lies posterior to primary somatosensory cortex
    • When either of these areas is damaged, one can’t process complex sensory information to accomplish purposeful movement
    • ---ie: manipulating eating utensils
  30. what are the 2 areas of specialization for language?
    • Broca's area
    • -- governs speaking ability
    • Wernicke's area
    • --Concerned with language comprehension
    • --Responsible for formulating coherent patterns of speech
  31. most aphasias result from:
  32. speech impediments are caused by:
    • defect in mechanical aspect of speech
    • Weakness or incoordination of muscles controlling vocal apparatus
  33. left cerebral hemisphere excels in:
    • Excels in logical, analytic, sequential, and verbal tasks
    • --Math, language forms, philosophy
    • Tends to process information in fine-detail way
  34. right cerebral hemisphere excels in:
    • Excels in nonlanguage skills
    • --Spatial perception and artistic and musical talents 
    • Views the world in a big-picture, holistic way
  35. Left cerebral hemisphere dominance
    Associated with “thinkers”
  36. Right hemispheric skills dominate in:
  37. primary functions of the basal nuclei:
    • Inhibiting muscle tone throughout the body
    • --Inhibitory role in motor control
    • Selecting and maintaining purposeful motor activity while suppressing useless or unwanted patterns of movement
    • Helping monitor and coordinate slow, sustained contractions, especially those related to posture and support
  38. diencephalon houses what 2 brain components:
    • hypothalamus
    • thalamus
  39. hypothalamus is most involved in:
    direct regulation of internal environment
  40. hypothalamus functions:
    • Controls body temperature
    • Controls thirst and urine output
    • Controls food intake
    • Controls anterior pituitary hormone secretion
    • Produces posterior pituitary hormones
    • Controls uterine contractions and milk ejection
    • Serves as a major ANS coordinating center
    • Plays role in emotional and behavioral patterns
    • Participates in sleep-wake cycle
  41. thalamus:
    • Positively reinforces voluntary motor behavior initiated by cortex
    • Part of diencephalon
    • Serves as “relay station” and synaptic integrating center for processing sensory input on its way to cerebral cortex
    • Along with brain stem and cortical
    • association areas, important in ability to direct attention to stimuli of
    • interest
    • Capable of crude awareness of various types of sensation but cannot distinguish their location or intensity
  42. limbic system-
    • Not a separate structure but a ring of forebrain structures that surround the brain stem
    • Includes portions of the hypothalamus
  43. limbic system responsible for:
    • Emotion
    • Basic, inborn behavioral patterns related to survival and perpetuation of the species
    • Plays important role in motivation and learning
  44. memory:
    • Storage of acquired knowledge for later recall
    • Memory trace
    • --Neural change responsible for retention or storage of knowledge
    • Short-term memory
    • --Lasts for seconds to hours
    • Long-term memory
    • --Retained for days to years
    • Consolidation
    • --Process of transferring and fixing short-term memory traces into long-term memory stores
    • Working memory
    • --Temporarily holds and interrelates various pieces of information relevant to a current mental task
  45. cerebellum-
    region of the brain:
    imp role in:
    plays key role in:
    • Subcortical region of the brain
    • Attached at top rear portion of brain stem
    • Important role in planning, initiating, and timing movements by sending input to the motor areas of cortex
    • Maintains proper position of the body in space
    • Subconscious coordination of motor activity (movement)
    • Plays key role in learning skilled motor tasks
  46. cerebellum is imp in:
    balance and in planning and executing voluntary movement
  47. brain stem-
    concerned with:
    what passes bran stem?
    consists of:
    • Continuous with spinal cord
    • Controls many life-sustaining processes, such as respiration, circulation, and digestion
    • Concerned with maintaining proper position of the body in space and subconscious coordination of motor activity (movement)
    • All incoming and outgoing fibers traversing between periphery and higher brain centers must pass Brain Stem
    • Consists of:
    • ---Midbrain
    • ---Pons
    • ---Medulla
  48. functions of the brain stem:
    • Most of cranial nerves arise from brain stem
    • Neuronal clusters within brain stem control heart and blood vessel function, respiration, and many digestive functions
    • Plays role in regulating muscle reflexes involved in equilibrium and posture
    • Reticular formation within brain stem receives and integrates all incoming sensory synaptic input
    • Centers that govern sleep are in brain stem (evidence suggests center promoting slow-wave sleep lies in hypothalamus)
  49. Active process consisting of two types of sleep characterized by different EEG patterns and different behaviors:
    • Slow-wave sleep
    • Paradoxical, or REM sleep
  50. cerebral cortex function:
    Sensory perception; voluntary control of movement; language; personality traits; thinking, memory, decision making, creativity, self-consciousness
  51. basal nuclei
    Inhibition of muscle tone; coordination of slow, sustained movements, suppression of useless patterns of movement
  52. thalamus function:
    Relay station for all synaptic input; crude awareness of sensation; some degree of consciousness; role in motor control
  53. hypothalamus function:
    Regulation of many homeostatic mechanisms, such as temperature control, thirst, urine output, food intake; important link between nervous & endocrine systems; role in sleep-wake cycle; role in emotion & basic behavioral patterns
  54. brain stem function:
    Origin of majority of peripheral cranial nerves; CV, respiratory & digestive control center; regulation of muscle reflexes involved with equilibrium & posture; role in sleep-wake cycle; reception & integration of all synaptic input from spinal cord; arousal & activation of cerebral cortex
  55. 2 vital functions of the spinal cord:
    • Neuronal link between brain and PNS
    • Integrating center for spinal reflexes
  56. 31 spinal nerves:
    • named for the region of vertebral column from which they emerge.
    • 8 pairs cervical (neck) nerves
    • 12 pairs thoracic (chest) nerves
    • 5 pairs lumbar (abdominal) nerves
    • 5 pairs sacral (pelvic) nerves
    • 1 pair coccygeal (tailbone) nerves
  57. 2 types of reflexes:
    • Simple, or basic, reflexes
    • -Built-in, unlearned responses
    • ---ie: pulling your hand away from a burning hot object
    • Acquired, or conditioned, reflexes
    • -Result of practice and learning
    • ---ie: pianist striking a particular key on seeing a given note on the music staff
  58. what is a reflex arc?
    what are the 5 basic components?
    • Neural pathway involved in accomplishing reflex activity
    • 5 basic components:
    • -Receptor
    • -Afferent pathway
    • -Integrating center
    • -Efferent pathway
    • -Effector