phys- nose, mouth, throat

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merazar15
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224069
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phys- nose, mouth, throat
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2013-06-16 16:34:52
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phys nose mouth throat exam
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phys- nose, mouth, throat. exam 2
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  1. organs of the respiratory system:
    • Nose
    • Pharynx (throat)
    • Larynx (voice box)
    • Trachea (windpipe)
    • Bronchi
    • Lungs
  2. functions of the paranasal sinuses?
    drain into:
    • the nasal cavities
    • air-filled cavities in the frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones
    • surround the nasal cavity and open into it
    • Functions:
    • - reduce the weight of the skull
    • -produce mucus
    • -influence voice quality by acting as resonating chambers
  3. the pharynx is used by what 2 systems?
    pharynx is subdivided into what 3 parts:
    • digestive and respiratory systems
    • 3 parts:
    • 1. nasopharynx 
    • 2. oropharynx 
    • 3. laryngopharynx
  4. where is the larynx located?
    at the entrance to the trachea
  5. opening between the vocal folds through which air enters the larynx
    glottis
  6. what are the aspects of speech?
    • 1.Phonation: (larynx)  The vocal folds of the larynx vibrate
    • 2. Articulation (lips, tongue and soft palate)
    • 3. Resonators (mouth, nose, sinus and pharynx)
  7. primary function of the digestive system?
    4 other functions:
    • PF: Transfer nutrients, water, and electrolytes from ingested food into body’s internal environment
    • others:
    • –Motility
    • –Secretion
    • –Digestion
    • –Absorption
  8. •Accessory digestive organs:
    • Salivary glands
    • Exocrine pancreas
    • –Bilary system
    •     •Liver
    •     •Gallbladder
  9. lips:
    • –Form opening
    • –Help procure, guide, and contain food in the mouth
    • –Important in speech
    • –Well-developed tactile sensation
  10. palate:
    • –Forms roof of oral cavity (separates mouth from nasal passages)
    • –Uvula (seals off nasal passages during swallowing)
  11. tongue:
    • –Forms floor of oral cavity
    • –Composed of skeletal muscle
    • –Movements aid in chewing and swallowing
    • –Plays important role in speech
    • –Taste buds
  12. pharynx:
    • –Cavity at rear of throat
    • –Common passageway for digestive and respiratory systems
    • –Tonsils
    •     •Within side walls of pharynx
    •     •Lymphoid tissue
  13. teeth:
    • –Responsible for chewing (mastication)
    • –First step in digestive process
  14. functions of chewing:
    • Grind and break food into smaller pieces to make swallowing easier and increase food surface area on which salivary enzymes can act
    • Mix food with saliva
    • Stimulate taste buds
  15. saliva-
    produced by:
    composition:
    • Produced largely by three major pairs of salivary glands
    • 99.5% H2O
    • 0.5% electrolytes and protein (amylase, mucus, lysozyme)
  16. functions of saliva:
    • Salivary amylase begins digestion of carbohydrates
    • Facilitates swallowing by moistening food
    • Mucus provides lubrication
    • Antibacterial action:
    •    -Lysozyme destroys bacteria
    •    –Saliva rinses away material that could serve as food source for bacteria
    • Solvent for molecules that stimulate taste buds
    • Aids speech by facilitating movements of lips and tongue
    • Helps keep mouth and teeth clean
    • Rich in bicarbonate buffers
  17. swallowing is the process of:
    • moving food from mouth thru esophague to stomach).
    • –Motility associated with pharynx and esophagus
    • –Sequentially programmed all-or-none reflex
    • –Initiated when bolus is voluntarily forced by tongue to rear of mouth into pharynx
    • –Most complex reflex in body
    • –Can be initiated voluntarily but cannot be stopped once it has begun
    • –Process divided into two stages:
    •      •Oropharyngeal stage
    •      •Esophageal stage (moves bolus from mouth through pharynx and into esophagus)
  18. what are the 2 sphincters and their function btwn the pharynx and the esophagus?
    • Pharyngoesophageal sphincter
    •     –Keeps entrance closed to prevent large volumes of air from entering esophagus and stomach during breathing
    • Gastroesophageal sphincter
    •     –Prevents reflux of gastric contents
  19. taste and smell receptors are:
    chemoreceptors
  20. chemoreceptors are housed in:
    present in:
    lifespan of:
    • taste buds
    • oral cavity and throat
    • 10 days
  21. taste bud consists of:
    • Taste pore
    • Opening through which fluids in mouth come into contact with surface of receptor cells
    • Taste receptor cells
    • Modified epithelial cells with surface folds called microvilli
    • Plasma membrane of microvilli contain receptor sites that bind selectively with chemical molecules
  22. a taste provoking chemical:
    tastant
  23. Binding of tastant with receptor cell alters:
    cell’s ionic channels to produce depolarizing receptor potential
  24. Receptor potential initiates:
    •action potentials within terminal endings of afferent nerve fibers with which receptor cell synapses
  25. taste Signals are conveyed via:
    •synaptic stops in brain stem and thalamus to cortical gustatory area
  26. 5 primary tastes:
    • Salty          
    •     •Stimulated by chemical salts, especially NaCl
    • –Sour         
    •     •Caused by acids which contain a free hydrogen ion, H+
    • –Sweet        
    •     •Evoked by configuration of glucose
    • –Bitter   
    •     •Brought about by more chemically diverse group of tastants   
    •     •Examples – alkaloids, toxic plant derivatives, poisonous substances
    • –Umani                
    •     •Meaty or savory taste
  27. taste buds are sensed best at:
    diff regions of the tongue
  28. sides of the tongue sensitive to:     
    back of the tongue:    
    tip of the tongue:         

    (not going t ask where)
    • sour
    • bitter
    • sweet and salty
  29. most taste buds respond to:    
    many substances produce:    
    some substances change in flavor as they:
    • all 5 taste qualities
    • a mixture of the basic taste sensation
    • move thru the mouth
  30. what are factors that influence taste perception?
    • information derived from other receptors, especially odor
    • Temperature and texture of food
    • Psychological experiences associated with past experiences with food
    • How cortex accomplishes perceptual processing of taste sensation is currently unknown
  31. olfactory receptors in the nose are:
    specialized endings of renewable afferent neurons
  32. olfactory  contains what 3 cell types:
    • Olfactory receptor cell        
    • –Afferent neuron whose receptor portion is in olfactory mucosa in nose and afferent axon traverses into brain        
    • –Axons of olfactory receptor cells collectively form olfactory nerve
    • Supporting cells        
    • –Secrete mucus
    • Basal cells- precursers of the base cells 
    • –Precursors of new olfactory receptor cells (replaced about every two months)
  33. odorants act thru:    
    afferent signals are sorted according to:
    • second-messenger  systems to trigger APs
    • to scent component by glomeruli within olfactory bulb
  34. odorants are molecules that can be smelled.      To be smelled, substance must be:
    • –Sufficiently volatile that some of its molecules can enter nose in inspired air
    • –Sufficiently water soluble that it can dissolve in mucus coating the olfactory mucosa
  35. series of events to smell:
    • 1) the chemical must be volatile
    • •it must be in the gaseous state as it enters the nasal cavity
    • 2) the chemical must be water soluble
    • •so that it can dissolve in the fluid containing the olfactory epithelium
    • 3) the dissolved chemicals stimulate the olfactory receptors by binding to protein receptors in olfactory cilium membranes
    • 4) the generation of APs in the olfactory cells
    • 5)an impulse travels through the olfactory cell axons to the olfactory nerve where the smell sensation is transmitted to the brain

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