Patho Exam 1

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priz_10
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Patho Exam 1
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2013-06-17 01:47:03
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Pathophysiology
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Exam 1
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  1. Proteolytic Cascades
    • proteases physio regulation:
    • blood coagulation, apoptosis, complement cascade, MAC etc.
  2. Diffusion
    • solute
    • move from great concentration to lower concentration
  3. Passive Mediated transport
    • (Facilitated diffusion)
    • move down concentration gradient with protein transport
  4. Osmolality
    measurement concentration molecules per weight of water
  5. Osmolarity
    concentration of molecules per volume of water
  6. Active Transport
    • move up concentration gradient
    • pumps (Na/K ATPase)
  7. Hypertonic
    • cell shrivel
    • high solute concentration outside, low solute concentration inside
    • water moves out
  8. Hypotonic
    • swell-burst
    • low solute concentration outside/ high solute concentration inside
    • water moves into cell
  9. Action Potential
    • raid change in resting membrane potential
    • electrical impurlses
  10. Action Potential: depolarization
    net movement of Na into cell
  11. Action Potential: threshold potential
    must reach threshold to generate action potential
  12. Action Potential: Repolarization
    Negative polarization reestablished
  13. Action Potential: Refractory Period
    during action potential, membrane cant respond to stimulus
  14. Cell Cycle
    • Interphase (G1,S,G2) double mass, duplicated materials
    • Prophase: appearance of chromosomes
    • Metaphase: spindle fibers pull centromeres of chromosomes
    • Anaphase: centromeres split, chromatids are pulled apart to opposite ends
    • Telophase: new nuclear membrane
  15. Epithelial tissue
    • stratified vs simple
    • gut
    • squamous, cuboidal, columnar, pseudostatified
  16. Connective Tissue
    • elastic, reticular, fibers, ground substances
    • examples: cartilage bone, vascular, adipose, organs
  17. Muscle Tissue
    smooth, stratisfied (skeletal), cardiac
  18. Neural Tissue
    neuron, synapse, axon, dendrite
  19. Ischemia
    reduced blood supply
  20. Anoxia
    total loss of blood supply to tissue
  21. Hypoxic tissue injury: cellular
    decreased ATP-breaks pumps, leads to edema
  22. Free Radical Injury
    • oxidative stress due to unpaired electrons
    • to stabilize lose/steal electron from cell membrane (lipid peroxidation)
  23. Necrosis
    • death of body tissue
    • cellular auto digestion
  24. Coagulative Necrosis
    • kidney, heart, adrenal glands
    • protein denaturation
    • gelatin, cooked egg white
    • hypoxia from chemical injury
  25. Liquefactive Necrosis
    • neurons, glial cells of brain
    • hydrolytic enzymes
  26. Caseous Necrosis
    • TB pulmonary infection
    • crumbled cheese
    • (coagulative and liquefactive)
  27. Fat Necrosis
    • breast, pancrease, abd organs
    • from lipase breakdown
    • TG release fatty acids
    • appearance: chalky white, opaque
  28. Dry Gangrene
    • caused by coagulative
    • skin dry and shrinks
    • dark brown/black
  29. Wet Gangrene
    • caused by liquefactive
    • black, cold, foul odor, swollen
  30. Gas Gangrene
    bubbles fromed from hydrolytic enzyme
  31. Apoptosis
    • programmed cell death
    • -nuclear, cytoplasmic shrink
    • -suicide cascade
    • -recruit phagocytes=inflammation
  32. Algor Mortis
    reduced body temperature
  33. Livor Mortis
    blood pooling
  34. Rigor Mortis
    muscles stiffen
  35. Postmortem autolysis
    • loosen skin
    • swell
  36. Starling Hypothesis
    • capillary hydrostatic (CH)
    • interstitial oncotic (IO)
    •      stimulate filtration
    • capillary oncotic (CO)
    • interstitial hydrostatic (IH)
    •       stop filtration (reabsorption)

    -Net filtration= filtration-reabsorption
  37. Renin-Angiotensin-aldosterone system
    regulates sodium and water
  38. Transcription
    complementary base paring by RNA polymerase to make mRNA
  39. Translation
    • mRNA to make polypeptides
    • need tRNA
  40. Somatic Cells
    • diploid cells
    • non sex
  41. Gamets
    • sex determining cells
    • haploid
    • x-female
    • y-male
  42. Down Syndrome
    • example of anueploidy
    • trisomy 21
    • mental retardation, low nasal bridges, epicanthal folds, poor muscle tone
  43. Chromosome Mosaics
    trisomies only in some cells of body
  44. Aneuploidy
    somatic cells doesn't contain 23 chromosomes
  45. Turner Syndrome
    • 45 chromosomes, no Y (single x)
    • female, gonadal streaks
    • short, webbing neck, wide spaced nipples, sparse body hair
  46. Klineferlter Syndrome
    • 47 XXY
    • male appearance, half developed breasts, small testes, sparse body hair, high pitched voice
  47. Cri du chal syndrome
    • 5p deletion (piece of choromosome missing)
    • cry of a cat
    • low birth weight, severe mental retardation, microcephaly
  48. Fragile X syndrome
    • site on long arm of chromosome expansion
    • mental retardation, higher in males
  49. locus
    location of gene on chromosome
  50. dominant
    observed allele
  51. recessive
    hidden allele
  52. Penetrance
    percent of individuals with specific henotypes who will express expected phenotype
  53. Expressivity
    • variation in a phenotype
    • mild to severe
  54. Incidence Rate
    number of new cases of a disease reported during a period of time
  55. Prevalence Rate:
    proportion of population affected by disease at specific point in time
  56. Cardinal Signs of Inflammation
    • local erythemia
    • swelling
    • pain
    • heat
  57. Tissue Repair: Regeneration
    return to original
  58. Tissue Repair: Resolution
    approximation of original
  59. Tissue Repair: Repair
    • due to extensive damage
    • scar (mostly collagen)
  60. Tissue Repair: debridement
    • cleanup of dissolved clots, microorganism, tissue etc
    • vasodialation, permeability from inflammation is reversed.
  61. Keloid Scar
    • extends beyond boundaries
    • impaired collagen
  62. Hypertrophic scar
    • swollen but stays within boundaries
    • impaired collagen
  63. Dehiscence
    scar pulls apart, suture
  64. Humoral Immunity
    • antibody (binds to antigen)
    • immune globulins
    • stimulate inflammation, leads to phagocytosis
    • T memory cells
  65. Cellular Immunity
    • lymphocytes
    • T ells react with antigen stimulate leukocytes,cytokine and Tc=kills
    • B memory cells
  66. Active Immunity
    • antigens/t cells produced after natural exposure
    • (peanut allergy 1st okay, 2nd reaction)
  67. Passive Immunty
    • antibodies transferred
    • transfusion, placenta
  68. Antigen
    binds to antibody
  69. MHC
    • major hisotcompatilbiity complex
    • group of gene codes for protein found on surface of cells (antigens) help immune system recognize foreign substances.
    • MHC1: CD8, Tc
    • MHC2: CD4 Th
  70. HLA
    • human leukocyte antigens (HLA's)
    • tissue rejection
    • tissue typed donor and recipient
  71. Antibodies: immunoglobulins
    • recognize anitgens
    • IgG-most abundant, placenta
    • IgA-1blood,2 secretions
    • IgD-?
    • IgE-allergy
    • IgM-first response
  72. T Helper Lymphocytes
    • Help: antigen driven maturation of B and T cells
    • Th1: developing cell-mediated immunity
    • Th2: developing humoral immunity
  73. Autoimmune
    self antigen
  74. Alloimmunity
    • reaction to tissue of another individual
    • organ transplant/blood donation
  75. Aging and Immune function
    • decrease T cell
    • decrease antibodies
    • increase autoantibodies
    • decrease member b cells
  76. Hypersensitivity types:
    1:IgE=mast cells (seasonal allergy rhinitis)

    2: tissue specific (autoimmune hemotytic anemia, graves) =phagocytosyis, APCC,etc

    3: Immune complex: neutrophils (reactive arthiritis, systemic lupus erythmatis)

    4: cell mediated: lymphocytes, macrophages (poison ivy)
  77. Anaphylaxis
    • hypersensitivity reaction
    • itching, hives, skin erythema, bronchioles contracted, larynx edme, vomit, GI cramps, diarrhea
  78. Mechanisms of autoimmunity
    • breakdown tolerance
    • sequester antigen
    • infectious disease
    • neoantigen
  79. Immunodeficiency:
    primary & secondary
    • failure of B cells, t cells, phagocytes, complement for self defense function
    • Primary: congenital (genetic)
    • Secondary: acquired by other disease or exposure
  80. Endemic
    high constant rate of infection in a population
  81. Epidemic
    number of infections in population exceeds number usually observed
  82. Pandemic
    worldwide epidemic
  83. Incubation
    initial exposure to onset of mild symptoms
  84. Prodonal
    initial symptoms-mild
  85. Invasion
    • multiply
    • elicit immune response
    • development of symptoms depends on pathogen
  86. Covalescence
    • immune/inflammation has worked, removed pathogen
    • symptoms decline
  87. Antigenic drift
    • mutation
    • T and B cells don't recgonize
  88. Antigentic shift
    recombination (virus)
  89. Gene switching
    switch genes on/off
  90. Exotoxin
    enzymes released cause decrease in protein syntehsis
  91. Endotoxin
    • liposacc. in membrane released produce toxin
    • gram negative
  92. Virus attack!
    • take over DNA, RNA, protein synth, cant replicate on own
    • lysomal membranes destruct
    • promote apoptosis
    • change cells to cancerous
  93. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS
    • HIV
    • deplete Thcells
    • blood borne
    • in late phase decrease of CD4 t cells

    TX HAART

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