Avian Embryology 2
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What are the favorable incubating conditions for the chickens?
- Gas Environment
What are the characteristics of the broody hen?
- -BMR rate drops
- -Body temp drops 1-2 degrees
- -Behavior pattern changes
- -Brood patch
Management of the broody hen
- -Do not disturb
- -Match egg size with hen
- -Dark light/Subdued light
- -Watch for mites
The egg is comprised of these main parts, what % is each component?
- -Whites= 57-58%
- -Yolk= 30-31%
- -Shell= 10-11%
- -51-52% water
- -16% pigments/minerals
Egg production is orchestrated through these different organs:
- -Brain (Endocrine)
- -Ovary (Estrogen)
- -Liver (Lipoprotein)
- -Oviduct (Calcium)
What is the purpose of the hypothalamus?
What ovary is functional?
What makes up an ovary?
- -2,000 small follicles (300 attain maturity)
What are the 3 periods in Avian Maturation?
- -Sexual Maturation (18-20 weeks)
- -Subsequent rapid growth
What changes in the ovary occur during sexual maturation?
- -Cells in the largest follicle produce progesterone in response to LH
- -As hens mature, plasma levels of estrogen increase
- -Causes liver to synthesize lipids
Name the Oviduct Tract in order, starting from Ovary
How long is the oviduct in the laying hen?
Functions of the Infundibulum
- -Site of Fertilization
- -Hosts Yolk for 15-30 minutes
- -Applies perivitelline membrane and chalaza
- -Has specialized glands for sperm storage
- -Secretion of thick albumen
- -Takes 3-4 hours
- -33cm long
- -Inner/Outer shell membranes
- -Prevents bacterial entry
- -8cm long
- -1.5 hours
Functions of Uterus/Shell Gland
- -Final Fluid-Addition
- -Water and Electrolytes
- -CaCO3 deposition
- -8cm long
- -18-22 hours
How long does the egg stay in the Vagina?
A few seconds
What way is an egg laid?
Large end first
What are the two poryphyrins that contribute to egg shell pigment?
- -Protoporphyrin (Browns)
- -Biliverdin (Blues/Greens)
What is Egg-Drop Syndrome?
-A viral disease that produces shell-less or soft-shelled eggs
Anatomy of the Spermatozoal cell
- -Pointed Head
- -Acrosome and Pronucleus
- -Tail piece
Where are sperm cells produced?
Where is semen produced?
-In the Vas Deferens
Primary Germ Layer Completion steps:
- 1. All embryonic layers originate from epiblast
- 2. At gastrulation, cells from epiblast migrate down between epiblast & hypoblast
- 3. Presumptive mesodermal cells remain between epiblast & hypoblast
- 4. Presumptive endoderm is formed by cells that migrated down into hypoblast
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