Avian Embryology 2

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Anonymous
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22415
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Avian Embryology 2
Updated:
2010-06-07 03:16:02
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old stuff review
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review of stuff on past midterms
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  1. What are the favorable incubating conditions for the chickens?
    • Temperature
    • -100F
    • Humidity
    • -40-60%
    • Gas Environment
    • -21%O2
    • -0.5%CO2
  2. What are the characteristics of the broody hen?
    • -BMR rate drops
    • -Body temp drops 1-2 degrees
    • -Behavior pattern changes
    • -Brood patch
  3. Management of the broody hen
    • -Do not disturb
    • -Match egg size with hen
    • -Dark light/Subdued light
    • -Watch for mites
  4. The egg is comprised of these main parts, what % is each component?
    • -Whites= 57-58%
    • -Yolk= 30-31%
    • -Shell= 10-11%
  5. Yolk composition:
    • -51-52% water
    • -16% pigments/minerals
  6. Egg production is orchestrated through these different organs:
    • -Brain (Endocrine)
    • -Ovary (Estrogen)
    • -Liver (Lipoprotein)
    • -Oviduct (Calcium)
  7. What is the purpose of the hypothalamus?
    Release GnRH
  8. What ovary is functional?
    -Left
  9. What makes up an ovary?
    • -Stroma
    • -2,000 small follicles (300 attain maturity)
  10. What are the 3 periods in Avian Maturation?
    • -Embryogenesis
    • -Sexual Maturation (18-20 weeks)
    • -Subsequent rapid growth
  11. What changes in the ovary occur during sexual maturation?
    • -Cells in the largest follicle produce progesterone in response to LH
    • -As hens mature, plasma levels of estrogen increase
    • -Causes liver to synthesize lipids
  12. Name the Oviduct Tract in order, starting from Ovary
    • 1.Ovary
    • 2.Infundibulum
    • 3.Magnum
    • 4.Isthmus
    • 5.Uterus
    • 6.Vagina
    • 7.Cloaca
    • 8.Vent
  13. How long is the oviduct in the laying hen?
    40-80cm long
  14. Functions of the Infundibulum
    • -Site of Fertilization
    • -Hosts Yolk for 15-30 minutes
    • -Applies perivitelline membrane and chalaza
    • -Has specialized glands for sperm storage
  15. Magnum functions
    • -Secretion of thick albumen
    • -Takes 3-4 hours
    • -33cm long
    • -Bactericidal
  16. Isthmus functions
    • -Inner/Outer shell membranes
    • -Prevents bacterial entry
    • -8cm long
    • -1.5 hours
  17. Functions of Uterus/Shell Gland
    • -Final Fluid-Addition
    • -Water and Electrolytes
    • -CaCO3 deposition
    • -8cm long
    • -18-22 hours
  18. How long does the egg stay in the Vagina?
    A few seconds
  19. What way is an egg laid?
    Large end first
  20. What are the two poryphyrins that contribute to egg shell pigment?
    • -Protoporphyrin (Browns)
    • -Biliverdin (Blues/Greens)
  21. What is Egg-Drop Syndrome?
    -A viral disease that produces shell-less or soft-shelled eggs
  22. Anatomy of the Spermatozoal cell
    • -Pointed Head
    • -Acrosome and Pronucleus
    • -Midpiece
    • -Mitochondria
    • -Tail piece
    • -Flagella
  23. Where are sperm cells produced?
    Testis
  24. Where is semen produced?
    -In the Vas Deferens
  25. Primary Germ Layer Completion steps:
    • 1. All embryonic layers originate from epiblast
    • 2. At gastrulation, cells from epiblast migrate down between epiblast & hypoblast
    • 3. Presumptive mesodermal cells remain between epiblast & hypoblast
    • 4. Presumptive endoderm is formed by cells that migrated down into hypoblast

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