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The largest laryngeal cartilage is the ____________ cartilage
The largest laryngeal cartilage consisted of two plates of hyaline cartilage which are shaped like a wedge. They are fused together. The top of the fused bored is called the ___ ____
laryngeal prominence known as the "Adams apple"
Superior to the thyroid cartilage is the _____ bone, which is connected to the larynx by the ____________ membrane
hyoid bone connected by the thyrohyoid membrane
this bone serves as an attachment point for the tongue muscles
inferior to the thyroid cartilage is the ring-shaped _______ cartilage
the _____ is inferior to the cricoid cartilage and conducts air to and from the lungs
Embedded in each vocal fold is a _____ ligament
Superior to the vocal ligament is the __________ ligament
What is the function of vestibular folds?
vestibular folds are not directly involved with the process of voice production.
instead the lubricate the vocal cords with mucous secretions and help prevent food from entering the lower respiratory tract organs.
Between each vocal fold is space for air to pass referred to the _________
Function of the Vocalis & Thyroarytenoids
Length of vocal ligaments are reduced or vocal ligaments loosen
Function of the cricothyroids
length of vocal ligaments increase or vocal ligaments tighten
The lower respiratory tract is composed of which organs?
How many rings are embedded in the wall of the trachea?
What are they made of?
What shape do they take?
- 16-20 tracheal rings
- made of hyaline cartilage
- In the back they are incomplete, so the take a characteristic C-shape
the wall of the trachea is made from __ distinct tissue layers
4 distinct tissue layers
The luminal tissue layer of the trachea is lined with?
- The Mucosa (mucous membrane)
- Goblet cels in the pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium produce mucous
the second tissue layer (deep to the luminal tissue layer) is the _______ layer.
this layer is composed of ________ connective tissue
areolar connective tissue; many blood vessels, neurons, and glands are also present
External to the 2nd submucosa layer in the trachea is the _________ layer. This layer forms the characteristic ______ rings.
Cartilaginous layer forming the characteristic C-shaped cartilage rings.
the outer layer of the trachea is composed of a band of loose connective tissue
Near the sternal angle, the trachea bifurcates into the right and left _____ bronchi
After the bronchi enter the lung, each primary bronchus divides into ______ bronchi which are also known as _________ bronchi. Within each lobe these bronchi branch into _____ bronchi.
- also known as lobar bronchi (because each one directly conducts air to and from one of the lung's five lobes)
- tertiary bronchi
Each tertiary bronchus conducts air to and from a _________________ segment, which is an anatomical and functional subdivision of a lobe
briefly describe the function of the arytenoid cartliages
- this moveable cartilage is moved by laryngeal muscles.
- The laryngeal muscles move the arytenoid cartilages to change the length, tension, and position of the vocal ligaments and folds.
identify the small elastic cartilage that sits on top of the arytenoid cartilage.
The epiglottis is composed of what type of cartilage tissue?
Briefly describe the function of the epiglottis
during the swallowing process, it is forced downward to close the opening to the larynx (respiratory tract).
what is the fibroeleastic membrane that runs between the arytenoid cartilage, epiglottis, and vestibular fold?
What is the approximate length and diameter of the trachea?
- Length = 4-5 inches (10-12 cm)
- Diameter = 1 inch (2.5 cm)
Approximately how many cartilage rings are embedded in the wall of the trachea?
there are about 16-20 cartilage rings
Briefly describe the composition and the function of the tracheal rings
- the rings are made of hyaline cartilage
- the cartilage rings support the tracheal wall and keep this vital air passageway from collapsing
Briefly describe the shape of the tracheal rings and the advantage this shape provides
- the tracheal rings are C-shaped
- this makes the trachea pliable so large food particles can pass down the esophagus
Identify the smooth muscle that connects the open posterior ends of the tracheal rings
Briefly describe the function of the trachealis muscle
they contract to narrow the lumen during coughing. This increases airflow velocity, which dislodges foreign particles