Respiratory System

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Author:
jmali921
ID:
224164
Filename:
Respiratory System
Updated:
2013-06-17 19:36:55
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Anatomy
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Description:
Larynxy etc.
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  1. The largest laryngeal cartilage is the ____________ cartilage
    thyroid cartliage
  2. The largest laryngeal cartilage consisted of two plates of hyaline cartilage which are shaped like a wedge. They are fused together. The top of the fused bored is called the ___ ____
    laryngeal prominence known as the "Adams apple"

  3. Superior to the thyroid cartilage is the _____ bone, which is connected to the larynx by the ____________ membrane
    hyoid bone connected by the thyrohyoid membrane
  4. this bone serves as an attachment  point for the tongue muscles
    hyoid bone
  5. inferior to the thyroid cartilage is the ring-shaped _______ cartilage
    cricoid cartilage
  6. the _____ is inferior to the cricoid cartilage and conducts air to and from the lungs
    trachae
  7. Embedded in each vocal fold is a _____ ligament
    vocal ligament
  8. Superior to the vocal ligament is the __________ ligament
    vestibular
  9. What is the function of vestibular folds?
    vestibular folds are not directly involved with the process of voice production.

    instead the lubricate the vocal cords with mucous secretions and help prevent food from entering the lower respiratory tract organs.
  10. Between each vocal fold is space for air to pass referred to the _________
    glottis
  11. Function of the Vocalis & Thyroarytenoids
    Length of vocal ligaments are reduced or vocal ligaments loosen
  12. Function of the cricothyroids
    length of vocal ligaments increase or vocal ligaments tighten
  13. The lower respiratory tract is composed of which organs?
    • bronchi
    • bronchioles
    • lungs
    • trachea
  14. How many rings are embedded in the wall of the trachea?
    What are they made of?
    What shape do they take?
    • 16-20 tracheal rings
    • made of hyaline cartilage
    • In the back they are incomplete, so the take a characteristic C-shape
  15. the wall of the trachea is made from __ distinct tissue layers
    4 distinct tissue layers
  16. The luminal tissue layer of the trachea is lined with?
    • The Mucosa (mucous membrane) 
    • Goblet cels in the pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium produce mucous
  17. the second tissue layer (deep to the luminal tissue layer) is the _______ layer.

    this layer is composed of ________ connective tissue
    submucosa

    areolar connective tissue; many blood vessels, neurons, and glands are also present
  18. External to the 2nd submucosa layer in the trachea is the _________ layer. This layer forms the characteristic ______ rings.
    Cartilaginous layer forming the characteristic C-shaped cartilage rings.
  19. the outer layer of the trachea is composed of a band of loose connective tissue
    The adventitia
  20. Near the sternal angle, the trachea bifurcates into the right and left _____ bronchi
    primary
  21. After the bronchi enter the lung, each primary bronchus divides into ______ bronchi which are also known as _________ bronchi. Within each lobe these bronchi branch into _____ bronchi.
    • secondary
    • also known as lobar bronchi (because each one directly conducts air to and from one of the lung's five lobes)
    • tertiary bronchi
  22. Each tertiary bronchus conducts air to and from a _________________ segment, which is an anatomical and functional subdivision of a lobe
    bronchopulmonary segment
  23. briefly describe the function of the arytenoid cartliages
    • this moveable cartilage is moved by laryngeal muscles.
    • The laryngeal muscles move the arytenoid cartilages to change the length, tension, and position of the vocal ligaments and folds. 
  24. identify the small elastic cartilage that sits on top of the arytenoid cartilage. 
    corniculate cartilage
  25. The epiglottis is composed of what type of cartilage tissue?
    elastic cartilage 
  26. Briefly describe the function of the epiglottis
    during the swallowing process, it is forced downward to close the opening to the larynx (respiratory tract).
  27. what is the fibroeleastic membrane that runs between the arytenoid cartilage, epiglottis, and vestibular fold?
    Quadrangular membrane 
  28. What is the approximate length and diameter of the trachea?
    • Length = 4-5 inches (10-12 cm)
    • Diameter = 1 inch (2.5 cm)
  29. Approximately how many cartilage rings are embedded in the wall of the trachea?
    there are about 16-20 cartilage rings 
  30. Briefly describe the composition and the function of the tracheal rings
    • the rings are made of hyaline cartilage 
    • the cartilage rings support the tracheal wall and keep this vital air passageway from collapsing 
  31. Briefly describe the shape of the tracheal rings and the advantage this shape provides
    • the tracheal rings are C-shaped
    • this makes the trachea pliable so large food particles can pass down the esophagus 
  32. Identify the smooth muscle that connects the open posterior ends of the tracheal rings
    trachealis muscle
  33. Briefly describe the function of the trachealis muscle 
    they contract to narrow the lumen during coughing. This increases airflow velocity, which dislodges foreign particles 

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