PSY 339

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PSY 339
2013-06-17 15:48:46
Cultural Psychology

Quiz 6 and 7
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  1. Culture and Face Recognition-Bias
    • šSame-race bias in the ability to
    • recognize faces
    • This bias may be due to attitudes toward people of same and other races, social orientation, task difficulty, experience, orienting strategies, different self-schemas,  and different perception and classification of faces
  2. Impression Formation
    • šPerson Perception: forming impressions of
    • others
    • North American research suggests that people ascribe desirable personality traits to those who are good looking
    • šPhysical attractiveness influences judgments of personality
    • šAttractive people are judged to be more competent and intelligent
  3. Culture and Attractiveness
    • The shape and distance of the eyes, symmetry, and overall facial proportion is universal—but other aspects such as the sizes of certain features, are culturally variant.
    • How cultures attach meaning to attractive faces is also variant.
  4. Culture and Mate selection
    • šAccording to Buss (1989), mate selection preferences are universal (due to different evolutionary selection pressures on males and females)
    • šFemales prefer:šFinancial prospects, Industriousness, Ambition, Older age
    • šMales prefer: šYouth, good looks, chastity
    • Some differences:šCompared to Americans and Russia, Japanese rated being kind, understanding, good conversationalist,  physical attractiveness, and status as being less important in martial partner
    • šCompared to Israelis, American students rated status of partner, closeness, and similarity important in a partner
  5. Mate Poaching
    • šstealing someone else’s mate
    • šMost common in Southern/Western/Eastern Europe, and South Africa
    • šIn all countries, mate poachers were more extroverted, disagreeable, unconscientious, unfaithful, and erotophilic
    • šCultures with more economic resources had
    • higher rates of mate-poaching attempts; sex differences in mate poaching smaller in cultures that were more gender egalitarian
  6. Culture and Sex
    • šUniversality in norms regarding incest and adultery
    • šCultural differences in importance of chastity in potential mates and homosexuality 
    • šCultures affect sex within marriage šCultures with fewer resources and stress have more insecure romantic attachments and higher  fertility rates
    • šJealousy is a universal response to infidelity
  7. Groupings of Culture and Sex
    Teen Permissives: Germany, Austria,  Sweden, Slovenia.

    • Sexual Conservatives: The US, Ireland, northern Ireland, Poland.
    • Homosexual Permissives: Netherlands, Norway, Czech Republic, Canada, Spain.
    • Moderates: Australia, UK, Hungary, Italy, Bulgaria, Russia, New Zealand, Israel.
    • Japan and the Philippines did not match any of the groups, so they have unique attitudes.
  8. Cultural frame switching
    Biculturals have multiple cultural systems in their minds, and access one or the other depending on the context—especially language usage.
  9. Cultural reaffirmation effect
    Biculturals endorse even more traditional values associated with their native culture than native monocultural individuals in those native cultures